Silver nanoparticles of Aloe vera gel as strong therapeutic candidates

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2019
Views (392) Download (21)

Silver nanoparticles of Aloe vera gel as strong therapeutic candidates

Erum Dilshad, Syeda Sojla Tazeem, Zainab Bashir, Ammar Hamza Iqbal, Adeel Saddique Khokhar, Naqoosh Zahra, Mubarak Ali Khan, Hammad Ismail, Maria Shabbir
Int. J. Biosci.15( 1), 361-374, July 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


The biological approach is the most preferred technique for preparation of nanoparticles being much easy, less time consuming, and more importantly eco-friendly. In the current study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out by using Aloe vera gel. Characterization of the biosynthesized AgNPs was conducted by UV-vis spectrophotometer which showed the absorbance peak at the 450 nm. The Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) analysis revealed further, the spherical shaped AgNPs with the average size of 40nm±4. Nonetheless, the elemental composition and phase centered cubic crystalline nature was confirmed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) respectively. The involvement of the carboxyl group of lipids of Aloe vera essential oils in the reduction of Ag cations to AgNPs was confirmed by the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Moreover, the bio-synthesized AgNPs when subjected to evaluation of bactericidal activity against both the Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens), showed higher activity against the Gram-negative bacterial strains. Furthermore, the particles under the study were also found to have potential to inhibit the growth of tested fungal strains (Mucor species, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani) in a concentration-dependent manner. Cytotoxicity against HePG2 and MCF7 cells was also found significant with IC50 of 13.89 and 19.29 µM, respectively. Thus, it can be concluded that combination therapy of medicinal plants with metal nanoparticles might be one of the potential approaches to combat various diseases.


Ahmad MS, Hussain M, Hanif M, Ali S, Qayyum M, Mirza B. 2008. Di‐and Triorganotin (IV) Esters of 3, 4‐Methylenedioxyphenylpropenoic Acid: Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterization and Biological Screening for Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Antitumor Activities. Chemical biology & drug design 71, 568-576.

Ahmed S, Ahmad M, Swami BL, Ikram S. 2016. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: a green expertise. Journal of advanced research 7, 17-28.

Albanese A, Tang PS, Chan WC. 2012. The effect of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface chemistry on biological systems. Annual review of biomedical engineering 14, 1-16.

Balaji A, Vellayappan MV, John AA, Subramanian AP, Jaganathan SK, SelvaKumar M, bin Mohd Faudzi AA, Supriyanto E, Yusof M. 2015. Biomaterials based nano-applications of Aloe vera and its perspective: a review. RSC Advances 5, 86199-86213.

Banerjee K, Das S, Choudhury P, Ghosh S, Baral R, Choudhuri SK. 2017. A novel approach of synthesizing and evaluating the anticancer potential of silver oxide nanoparticles in vitro. Chemotherapy 62, 279-289.

Bar H, Bhui DK, Sahoo GP, Sarkar P, De SP, Misra A. 2009. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using latex of Jatropha curcas. Colloids and surfaces A: Physicochemical and engineering aspects 339, 134-139.

Carlson C, Hussain SM, Schrand AM, K. Braydich-Stolle L, Hess KL, Jones RL, Schlager JJ. 2008. Unique cellular interaction of silver nanoparticles: size-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species. The journal of physical chemistry B 112, 13608-13619.

Chandran SP, Chaudhary M, Pasricha R, Ahmad A, Sastry M. 2006. Synthesis of gold nanotriangles and silver nanoparticles using Aloe vera plant extract. Biotechnology progress 22, 577-583.

Choi SW, Son BW, Son YS, Park YI, Lee SK, Chung MH. 2001. The wound‐healing effect of a glycoprotein fraction isolated from Aloe vera. British Journal of Dermatology 145, 535-545.

Deng X, Yang S, Nie H, Wang H, Liu Y. 2008. A generally adoptable radiotracing method for tracking carbon nanotubes in animals. Nanotechnology 19, 075101.

Ehlers A, Riemann I, Martin S, Le Harzic R, Bartels A, Janke C, König K. 2007. High (1 GHz) repetition rate compact femtosecond laser: A powerful multiphoton tool for nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. Journal of applied physics 102, 014701.

Dilshad E, Zafar S, Ismail H, Waheed MT, Cusido RM, Palazon J, Mirza B. 2016. Effect of rol genes on polyphenols biosynthesis in Artemisia annua and their effect on antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of the plant. Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 179(8), 1456-1468.

Feng QL, Wu J, Chen G, Cui F, Kim T, Kim J. 2000. A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of biomedical materials research 52, 662-668.

Fernando S, Gunasekara T, Holton J. 2018. Antimicrobial Nanoparticles: applications and mechanisms of action. Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases 8(1), 2-11.

Franco-Molina MA, Mendoza-Gamboa E, Sierra-Rivera CA, Gómez-Flores RA, Zapata- Benavides P, Castillo-Tello P, Alcocer-González JM, Miranda-Hernández DF, Tamez-Guerra RS, Rodríguez-Padilla C. 2010. Antitumor activity of colloidal silver on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 29, 148-155.

Iravani S. 2011. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plants. Green Chemistry 13, 2638- 2650.

Jain N, Bhargava A, Majumdar S, Tarafdar J, Panwar J. 2011. Extracellular biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus flavus NJP08: a mechanism perspective. Nanoscale 3, 635-641.

Jo Y-K, Kim BH, Jung G. 2009. Antifungal activity of silver ions and nanoparticles on phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Disease 93, 1037-1043.

Karunagaran V, Rajendran K, Sen S. 2017. Optimization of biosynthesis of silver oxide nanoparticles and its anticancer activity. International Journal of Nanoscience 16, 1750018.

Kim S, Choi JE, Choi J, Chung K-H, Park K, Yi J, Ryu D-Y. 2009. Oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells. Toxicology in vitro 23, 1076-1084.

Krishnaraj C, Jagan E, Rajasekar S, Selvakumar P, Kalaichelvan P, Mohan N. 2010. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 76, 50-56.

Kumar B, Smita K, Cumbal L, Debut A. 2017. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Andean blackberry fruit extract. Saudi journal of biological sciences 24, 45-50.

Kumar CMK, Yugandhar P, Savithramma N. 2016. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Adansonia digitata L. fruit pulp extract, characterization, and its antimicrobial properties. Journal of intercultural ethnopharmacology 5, 79.

Kumar SS, Melchias G, Ravikumar P, Chandrasekar R, Kumaravel P. 2014. Bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts and their antibacterial activity. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 4, 39-43.

Kurt A, Erkose-Genc G, Uzun M, Emrence Z, Ustek D, Isik-Ozkol G. 2017. The antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of silver containing denture base material. Nigerian journal of clinical practice 20, 290-295.

Kwon JW, Yoon SH, Lee SS, Seo KW, Shim IW. 2005. Preparation of silver nanoparticles in cellulose acetate polymer and the reaction chemistry of silver complexes in the polymer. Bull Korean Chem Soc 26, 837-840.

Mahendiran D, Subash G, Selvan DA, Rehana D, Kumar RS, Rahiman AK. 2017. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using plant extracts of Aloe vera and Hibiscus sabdariffa: phytochemical, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-proliferative studies. BioNanoScience 7, 530- 545.

Martínez-Castañón G, Niño-Martínez N, Loyola-Rodríguez J, Patiño-Marín N, Martínez- Mendoza J, Ruiz F. 2009. Synthesis of silver particles with different sizes and morphologies. Materials Letters 63, 1266-1268.

Mohan AC, Renjanadevi B. 2016. Preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles and its characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Procedia Technology 24, 761-766.

Naseem T, Farrukh MA. 2015. Antibacterial activity of green synthesis of iron nanoparticles using Lawsonia inermis and Gardenia jasminoides leaves extract. Journal of Chemistry 2015, 1-7.

Naveena BE, Prakash S. 2013. Biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles using marine algae Gracilaria corticata and its application as a potent antimicrobial and antioxidant agent. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 6, 179-182.

Nethradevi C, Sivakumar P, Renganathan S. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Datura metel flower extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity. International Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures 2, 16-21.

Pal S, Tak YK, Song JM. 2007. Does the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles depend on the shape of the nanoparticle? A study of the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Applied and environmental microbiology 73, 1712-1720.

Panacek A, Kolar M, Vecerova R, Prucek R, Soukupova J, Krystof V, Hamal P, Zboril R, Kvitek L. 2009. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Candida spp. Biomaterials 30, 6333- 6340.

Park EJ, Yi J, Kim Y, Choi K, Park K. 2010. Silver nanoparticles induce cytotoxicity by a Trojan-horse type mechanism. Toxicology in vitro 24, 872-878.

Peng S, Norman J, Curtin G, Corrier D, McDaniel H, Busbee D. 1991. Decreased mortality of Norman murine sarcoma in mice treated with the immunomodulator, Acemannan. Molecular biotherapy 3, 79-87.

Priya MM, Selvi BK, Paul J. 2011. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the leaf extracts of Euphorbia hirta and Nerium indicum. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials & Biostructures (DJNB) 6, 869-877.

Puchalski M, Dąbrowski P, Olejniczak W, Krukowski P, Kowalczyk P, Polański K. 2007. The study of silver nanoparticles by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning tunnelling microscopy. Materials Science-Poland 25, 473-478.

Raza MA, Kanwal Z, Rauf A, Sabri AN, Riaz S, Naseem S. 2016. Size-and shape-dependent antibacterial studies of silver nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical routes. Nanomaterials 6, 74-89.

Sahu PK, Giri DD, Singh R, Pandey P, Gupta S, Shrivastava AK, Kumar A, Pandey KD. 2013. Therapeutic and medicinal uses of Aloe vera: a review. Pharmacology & Pharmacy 4, 599-610.

Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. 2013. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. Journal of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry 1(6), 168-183.

Singh A, Jain D, Upadhyay M, Khandelwal N, Verma H. 2010. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Argemone mexicana leaf extract and evaluation of their antimicrobial activities. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures 5, 483-489.

Singh R. 2015. Medicinal plants: A review. Journal of Plant Sciences 3, 50-55.

Sri PU, Sree NV, Revathi S, Kumar YA, Sri ND. 2010. Role of herbal medicines in cancer. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (11), 7-22.

Van Dong P, Ha CH, Kasbohm J. 2012. Chemical synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel- shaped silver nanoparticles. International Nano Letters 2, 1-9(11), 7-22.

Vogler B, Ernst E. 1999. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness. Br J Gen Pract 49, 823-828.

Zhang X-F, Liu ZG, Shen W, Gurunathan S. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, properties, applications, and therapeutic approaches. International journal of molecular sciences 17, 1531-1534.