Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Skin infection risk factors and its management

Review Paper | January 1, 2020

| Download 4

Bibi Sazain Aman, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Zohra Samreen, Ashiq Hussain, Imran Taj, Saima Azam, Syeda Ayesha Ali, Sakina Khan, Lalbibi, Saqiba Jogezai, Bilal Javed

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.16( 1), 117-133, January 2020


JBES 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs) involve microbial invasion and SSTIs have variable presentations and severities. The challenge of SSTIs is to efficiently differentiate those cases that require immediate attention and intervention, whether medical or surgical, from those that are less severe. SSTIs are among the most severe health problems, particularly in individuals who inject drugs. The skin has an extremely diverse ecology of organisms that may produce infection, and majorities of SSTIs are caused by bacteria, referred as acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Annually, more than 4 million patients are seen in the emergency department for skin and soft-tissue infections, increased by nearly 1 million from 2007. The factors commonly believed to reveal the high prevalence and incidence of common skin infections in developing countries are poverty related including a low level of hygiene, difficulties accessing water; climatic factors; and overcrowding living conditions. Environmental and lifestyle factors negatively affect skin health and facilitate the spread of contagious skin infections such as furuncles, carbuncles, and impetigo. Poor personal hygiene in rural areas children can lead to various skin infections, and can be transmitted to other close persons. Skin diseases are a common cause of hospital visits worldwide, occurring in both rural and urban populations, affecting both young and old. Reduced functional capacity and increased susceptibility of skin with development of dermatoses, as well as benign and malignant tumors are the most common skin conditions in aged populations worldwide. The diagnosis of skin and soft-tissue infection is difficult because they may commonly trick as other clinical syndromes. The selection of antimicrobial therapy is predicated on knowledge of the potential pathogens, the instrument of entry, disease severity and clinical complications.


Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Skin infection risk factors and its management

Abrahamian FM, Talan DA, Moran GJ. 2008. Management of skin and soft-tissue infections in the emergency department. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 22, 89-116.

Aly R, Maibach H. 1981. Factors controlling skin bacterial flora. Skin Microbiology: Relevance to Clinical Infection 29-39. Springer, New York.

Amery J, Tomkins A, Victor C. 1995. The prevalence of behavioural problems amongst homeless primary school children in an outer London borough: a feasibility study. Public Health 109, 421-424.

Baker M, McNicholas A, Garrett N, Jones N, Stewart J, Koberstein V, Lennon D. 2000. Household crowding a major risk factor for epidemic meningococcal disease in Auckland children. The Paediatric Infectious Disease Journal 19, 983-990.

Baroux N, D’Ortenzio E, Amédéo N, Baker C, Ali Alsuwayyid B, Dupont-Rouzeyrol M, O’Connor O, Steer A, Smeesters PR. 2014. The emm-cluster typing system for Group A Streptococcus identifies epidemiologic similarities across the Pacific region. Clinical Infectious Diseases 59, 84-92.

Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J, Sterry W, Hodin MW, Griffiths TW, Watson RE, Hay RJ, Griffiths CE. 2016. Age-associated skin conditions and diseases: current perspectives and future options. The Gerontologist 56, 230-242.

Boyers LN, Karimkhani C, Naghavi M, Sherwood D, Margolis DJ, Hay RJ, Williams HC, Naldi L, Coffeng LE, Weinstock MA, Dunnick CA. 2014. Global mortality from conditions with skin manifestations. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 71, 1137-1143. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.08.022

Brook I, Frazier EH, Yeager JK. 1995. Aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of kerions. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 14, 326-327.

Brook I, Frazier EH, Yeager JK. 1996. Microbiology of infected atopic dermatitis. International Journal of Dermatology 35, 791-793.

Brook I, Frazier EH, Yeager JK. 1998. Microbiology of infected eczema herpeticum. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 38, 627-629.

Brook I, Frazier EH, Yeager JK. 1999. Microbiology of infected pustular psoriasis lesions. International Journal of Dermatology 38, 579-581.

Brook I, Frazier EH, Yeager JK. 2000. Microbiology of infected poison ivy dermatitis. British Journal of Dermatology 142, 943-946.

Brook I. 1995. Microbiology of secondary bacterial infection in scabies lesions. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33, 2139-2140.

Brook I. 2002. Secondary bacterial infections complicating skin lesions. Journal of Medical Microbiology 51, 808-812.

Brown T, Baggott R, Jones K, Hunt R. 2004. The impact of overcrowding on health and education: A review of the research evidence and literature. London: The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2003. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in correctional facilities⎯Georgia, California, and Texas, 2001-2003. MMWR Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 52, 992-996.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2005. Infectious disease and dermatologic conditions in evacuees and rescue workers after Hurricane Katrina–multiple states, August September, 2005. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54, 961-964

Chahine EB, Sucher AJ. 2015. Skin and soft tissue infections. PSAP 1, 1-27.

Chang AL, Wong JW, Endo JO, Norman RA. 2013. Geriatric dermatology review: Major changes in skin function in older patients and their contribution to common clinical challenges. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 14, 724-730. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2013.02.014

Chen W, Mempel M, TraidlHofmann C, Al Khusaei S, Ring J. 2010. Gender aspects in skin diseases. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 24, 1378-1385.

Chen W, Thiboutot D, Zouboulis CC. 2002. Cutaneous androgen metabolism: basic research and clinical perspectives. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 119, 992-1007.

Chua K, Laurent F, Coombs G, Grayson ML, Howden BP. 2011. Antimicrobial resistance: Not community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)! A clinician’s guide to community MRSA-its evolving antimicrobial resistance and implications for therapy. Clinical Infectious Diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 52, 99-114.

Chuang YY, Huang YC. 2013. Molecular epidemiology of community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Asia. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 13, 698-708.

Chuong CM, Nickoloff BJ, Elias PM, Goldsmith LA, Macher E, Maderson PA, Sundberg JP, Tagami H, Plonka PM, Thestrup-Pederson K, Bernard BA. 2002. What is the’true’function of skin?. Experimental Dermatology 11, 159-87.

Dahlman D, Hakansson A, Kral AH, Wenger L, Ball EL, Novak SP. 2017. Behavioural characteristics and injection practices associated with skin and soft tissue infections among people who inject drugs: A community-based observational study. Substance Abuse 38, 105-112.

Dao Jr H, Kazin RA. 2007. Gender differences in skin: a review of the literature. Gender Medicine 4, 308-328.

Darmstadt GL. 1998. Antibiotics in the management of pediatric skin disease. Dermatologic Clinics 16, 509-525.

Del-Giudice P, Blanc V, Durupt F, Bes M, Martinez JP, Counillon E, Lina G, Vandenesch F, Etienne J. 2006. Emergence of two populations of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus with distinct epidemiological,   clinical   and biological features, isolated from patients with community-acquired skin infections. British Journal of Dermatology 154, 118-124.

Denda M, Sato J, Masuda Y, Tsuchiya T, Koyama J, Kuramoto M, Elias PM, Feingold KR. 1998. Exposure to a dry environment enhances epidermal permeability barrier function. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 111, 858-863.

Dermatological Society of New Zealand. 2010. Dermnet. Available from: www.dermnetnz.org (Accessed Oct, 2010).

Dryden MS. 2010. Complicated skin and soft tissue infection. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 65, 35-44.

Due K, Australia S. 2017. The impact of climate change on skin. DermNet NZ Editor in Chief. dermnetnz.org

Edelsberg J, Taneja C, Zervos M, Haque N, Moore C, Reyes K, Spalding J, Jiang J, Oster G. 2009. Trends in US hospital admissions for skin and soft tissue infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15, 1516.

Emmerson E, Rando G, Meda C, Campbell L, Maggi A, Hardman MJ. 2013. Estrogen receptor-mediated signalling in female mice is locally activated in response to wounding. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 375, 149-156.

Eron LJ, Lipsky BA, Low DE, Nathwani D, Tice AD, Volturo GA. 2003. Managing skin and soft tissue infections: expert panel recommendations on key decision points. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 52, 3-17.

Falcone M, Russo A, Venditti M, Novelli A, Pai MP. 2013. Considerations for higher doses of daptomycin in critically ill patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Clinical Infectious Diseases 57, 1568-1576.

Figueroa JL, Fuller LC, Abraha A, Hay RJ. 1996. The prevalence of skin disease among school children in rural Ethiopia — a preliminary assessment of dermatologic needs. Pediatric Dermatology 13, 378-381.

Foster T, Dance B, Willetts J. 2017. Unfinished business: Water, sanitation and hygiene in remote indigenous communities in Australia’s Northern Territory. In Water and Health Conference 62-63.

Fuchs E. 2009. Finding one’s niche in the skin. Cell Stem Cell 4, 499-502.

Fustes-Morales A, Gutierrez-Castrellon P, Duran-Mckinster C, Orozco-Covarrubias L, Tamayo-Sanchez L, Ruiz-Maldonado R. 2002. Necrotizing fasciitis: report of 39 pediatric cases. Archives of Dermatology 138, 893-899.

 Garau J, Ostermann H, Medina J, Avila M, McBride K, Blasi F, REACH Study Group. 2013. Current management of patients hospitalized with complicated skin and soft tissue infections across Europe (2010–2011): assessment of clinical practice patterns and real‐life effectiveness of antibiotics from the REACH study. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 19, 377-385.

Garibyan L, Chiou AS, Elmariah SB. 2013. Advanced aging skin and itch: addressing an unmet need. Dermatologic Therapy 26, 92-103. doi:10.1111/dth.12029

Gibbs SAM. 1996. Skin disease and socioeconomic conditions in rural Africa: Tanzania. International Journal of Dermatology 35, 633-639.

Gunderson CG. 2011. Cellulitis: definition, etiology, and clinical features. The American Journal of Medicine 124, 1113-1122.

Gupta MA. 2010. 90 Aging skin: Some psychosomatic aspects. In M. A. Farage, K. W. Miller, & H. I. Maibach (Eds.), Textbook of Aging Skin 959- 969. Berlin: Springer.

Hedrick J. 2003. Acute bacterial skin infections in pediatric medicine. Paediatric Drugs 5, 35-46.

Herman RA, Kee VR, Moores KG, Ross MB. 2008. Etiology and treatment of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 65, 219-225.

Hillgren K, Sarkar K, Elofsson S, Britton S. 2012. Widespread risk behavior among injecting drug users. Over 80 percent HCV-infected–7 percent have HIV, as demonstrated by the first baseline study. Lakartidningen 109, 1221.

Hodin MW. 2014. Life course of healthy skin global partnership: Consensus statement of the delegates of the 2014 Manchester Summit. Global Coalition on Aging. Retrieved from http://www.globalcoa litiononaging. com/v2/data/uploads/ documents/ manchester-summit-consensus-statement_final.

Hook EW, Hooton TM, Horton CA, Coyle MB, Ramsey PG, Turck M. 1986. Microbiologic evaluation of cutaneous cellulitis in adults. Archives of Internal Medicine 146, 295-297.

Hunt D. 2004. Assessing and reducing the burden of serious skin infections in children and young people in the greater Wellington region. Six-month report January -July 2004 and update on progress, October 2004. Wellington: Capital and Coast District Health Board, Hutt Valley District Health Board and Regional Public Health.

Inglis TJ, O’Reilly L, Merritt AJ, Levy A, Heath C. 2011. The aftermath of the Western Australian melioidosis outbreak. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 851-857.

Kapil UM, Sood AK. 1989. Morbidity pattern in children below three years attending a rural health centre in Haryana. Indian Pediatrics 26, 550-552.

Kazakova SV, Hageman JC, Matava M, Srinivasan A, Phelan L, Garfinkel B, Boo T, McAllister S, Anderson J, Jensen B, Dodson D. 2005. A clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among professional football players. New England Journal of Medicine 352, 468-475.

Ki V, Rotstein C. 2008. Bacterial skin and soft tissue infections in adults: a review of their epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and site of care. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 19, 173-184.

Kong BY, Haugh IM, Schlosser BJ, Getsios S, Paller AS. 2016. Mind the gap: sex bias in basic skin research. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 136, 12-14.

Koning S, Mohammedamin RS, Van Der Wouden JC, Van SuijlekomSmit LW, Schellevis FG, Thomas S. 2006. Impetigo: incidence and treatment in Dutch general practice in 1987 and 2001—results from two national surveys. British Journal of Dermatology 154, 239-243.

Krashchenko VA. 1989. The seasonality of pyoderma in workers of the Don Basin coal mines. Vestnik Dermatologii i Venerologii 10, 55-58.

Larson E, Friedman C, Cohran J, Treston-Aurand J, Green S. 1997. Prevalence and correlates of skin damage on the hands of nurses. Heart & Lung 26, 404-412.

Lasithiotakis K, Leiter U, Meier F, Eigentler T, Metzler G, Moehrle M, Breuninger H, Garbe C. 2008. Age and gender are significant independent predictors of survival in primary cutaneous melanoma. Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society 112, 1795-1804.

Laube S, Farrell AM. 2002. Bacterial skin infections in the elderly. Drugs & Aging 19, 331-342.

Laube S. 2004. Skin infections and ageing. Ageing Research Reviews 3, 69-89.

Lavker RM, Zheng P, Dong G. 1987. Aged skin: a study by light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 88, 44-51.

Liotta M. 2018. Overcrowding leads to poorer health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. National Guide to a Preventive Health Assessment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People. <https://www1.racgp.org.au /newsgp/racgp/ overcrowding-a-key-determinant-of-poor-health.

Lipsky BA. 2002. Cellulitis, erysipelas, and necrotizing soft tissue infections. Best Practice of Medicine.

Liss GM, Sussman GL. 1999. Latex sensitization: occupational versus general population prevalence rates. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 35, 196-200.

Mahe A, Ly F, Aymard G, Dangou JM. 2003. Skin diseases associated with the cosmetic use of bleaching products in women from Dakar, Senegal. British Journal of Dermatology 148, 493-500.

Mancini AJ. 2000. Bacterial skin infections in children: the common and the not so common. Pediatric Annals 29, 26-35.

Martinez R, Reyes S, Lorenzo MJ, Menendez R. 2009. Impact of guidelines on outcome: the evidence. In Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 30, 172-178. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

Marwick C, Rae N, Irvine N, Davey P. 2012. Prospective study of severity assessment and management of acute medical admissions with skin and soft tissue infection. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 67, 1016-1019.

Mayer JE, Swetter SM, Fu T, Geller AC. 2014. Screening, early detection, education, and trends for melanoma: current status (2007-2013) and future directions: Part II. Screening, education, and future directions. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 71, 611-621.

McAdam AJ, Sharpe AH. 2005. Infectious diseases – bacterial infections. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, eds. Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc 371-396.

McMurry LM, Oethinger M, Levy SB. 1998. Triclosan targets lipid synthesis. Nature 394, 531-532.

Merritt C, Haran JP, Mintzer J, Stricker J, Merchant RC. 2013. All purulence is local– epidemiology and management of skin and soft tissue infections in three urban emergency departments. BMC Emergency Medicine 13, 26.

Mihm Jr MC, Soter NA, Dvorak HF, Austen KF. 1976. The structure of normal skin and the morphology of atopic eczema. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 67, 305-312.

Mistry RD, Scott HF, Zaoutis TE, Alpern ER. 2011. Emergency department treatment failures for skin infections in the era of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Pediatric Emergency Care 27, 21-26.

Moet GJ, Jones RN, Biedenbach DJ, Stilwell MG, Fritsche TR. 2007. Contemporary causes of skin and soft tissue infections in North America, Latin America, and Europe: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1998–2004). Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 57, 7-13.

Montravers P, Snauwaert A, Welsch C. 2016. Current guidelines and recommendations for the management of skin and soft tissue infections. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 29, 131-138.

Moran GJ, Amii RN, Abrahamian FM, Talan DA. 2005. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in community-acquired skin infections. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11, 928-930.

Mortimer EA, Lipsitz PJ, Wolinsky E, Gonzaga AJ, Rammelkamp CH. 1962. Transmission of Staphylococci between newborns: importance of the hands of personnel. American Journal of Diseases of Children 104, 289-295.

Mortimer Jr EA, Wolinsky E, Gonzaga AJ, Rammelkamp Jr CH. 1966. Role of airborne transmission in staphylococcal infections. British Medical Journal 1, 319-322.

Naimi TS, LeDell KH, Boxrud DJ, Groom AV, Steward CD, Johnson SK, Besser JM, O’Boyle C, Danila RN, Cheek JE, Osterholm MT. 2001. Epidemiology and clonality of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Minnesota, 1996–1998. Clinical Infectious Diseases 33, 990-996.

Nauta RJ. 1990. A radical approach to bacterial panniculitis of the abdominal wall in the morbidly obese. Surgery 107, 134-139.

 NELSON KE, Bisno AL, Waytz P, Brunt J, Moses VK, Riaz-ul H. 1976. The epidemiology and natural history of streptococcal pyoderma: an endemic disease of the rural southern United States. American Journal of Epidemiology 103, 270-283.

Noroozi M, Armoon B, Ghisvand H, Noroozi A, Karimy M, Bazrafshan MR, Marshall BD, Dieji B. 2019. Prevalence and risk factors for injection site skin infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tehran. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 18, 258-262.

Otto M. 2010. Basis of virulence in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annual Review of Microbiology 64, 143-162.

Oumeish I, Oumeish OY, Bataineh O. 2000. Acute bacterial skin infections in children. Clinics in Dermatology 18, 667-678.

Pallin DJ, Egan DJ, Pelletier AJ, Espinola JA, Hooper DC, Camargo Jr CA. 2008. Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annals of Emergency Medicine 51, 291-298.

Pfuntner A, Wier LM, Stocks C. 2006. Most frequent conditions in U.S. hospitals, 2010, Statistical Brief #148. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Statistical Briefs, January 2013. Accessed at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ books/ NBK.

Pierard S, PIERARD G, Hermanns-Lê T, Hermanns JF, Franchimont C. 2014. Greenhouse gas-related climate changes and some expected skin alterations. Austin Journal of Dermatology 1, 3.

Pierard-Franchimont C, Hermanns-Lê T, Piérard SL, Piérard GE. 2014. Climatic changes and the antinomy of dehydrating water. Medical Review of Liege 69, 618-621.

 Proksch E, Brandner JM, Jensen JM. 2008. The skin: an indispensable barrier. Experimental Dermatology 17, 1063-1072.

Prusakowski MK, Kuehl DR. 2015. Trends in emergency department management of skin abscesses. American Journal of Infection Control 43, 336-340.

Rennie RP, Jones RN, Mutnick AH, Sentry Program Study Group. 2003. Occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of pathogens isolated from skin and soft tissue infections: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (United States and Canada, 2000). Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 45, 287-293.

Sandby-Moller J, Poulsen T, Wulf HC. 2003. Epidermal thickness at different body sites: relationship to age, gender, pigmentation, blood content, skin type and smoking habits. Acta DermatoVenereologica 83, 410-413.

Sardana K, Mahajan S, Sarkar R, Mendiratta V, Bhushan P, Koranne RV, Garg VK. 2009. The spectrum of skin disease among Indian children. Pediatric Dermatology 26, 6-13. DOI: 10.1111/j.15251470.2008.00814.x.

Sardana K, Sharma RC, Sarkar R. 2002. Seasonal variation in acne vulgaris: myth or reality. The Journal of Dermatology 29, 484-488.

Sartelli M, Malangoni MA, May AK, Viale P, Kao LS, Catena F, Ansaloni L, Moore EE, Moore FA, Peitzman AB, Coimbra R. 2014. World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of skin and soft tissue infections. World Journal of Emergency Surgery 9, 57.

Saw SM, Koh D, Adjani MR, Wong ML, Hong CY, Lee J, Chia SE, Munoz CP, Ong CN. 2001. A population-based prevalence survey of skin diseases in adolescents and adults in rural Sumatra, Indonesia, 1999. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95, 384-388.

Sharma RC. 1999. Clinical profile of cutaneous infections and infestations in the Pediatric age group. Indian Journal of Dermatology 44, 174-178.

Sharma S, Bassi R, Sodhi MK. 2012. Epidemiology of dermatoses in children and adolescents in Punjab, India. Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists 22, 224-229.

Shrestha R, Shrestha D, Dhakal AK, Shakya A, Shah SC, Shakya H. 2012. Spectrum of pediatric dermatoses in tertiary care center in Nepal. Nepal Medical College Journal 14, 146-148.

Simou C, Hill PB, Forsythe PJ, Thoday KL. 2005. Species specificity in the adherence of Staphylococci to canine and human corneocytes: a preliminary study. Veterinary Dermatology 16, 156-161.

Simpkins R. 2019. The impact of poor hygiene on the elderly. https://showerbay.com/impact-poor-hygiene.

Singh B, Maibach H. 2013. Climate and skin function: an overview. Skin Research and Technology 19, 207-212.

Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Dellinger EP, Goldstein EJ, Gorbach SL, Hirschmann JV, Kaplan SL, Montoya JG, Wade JC. 2014. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft tissue infections: 2014 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical Infectious Diseases 59, 10-52.

Stevens DL, Bisno AL, Chambers HF, Everett ED, Dellinger P, Goldstein EJ, Gorbach SL, Hirschmann JV, Kaplan EL, Montoya JG, Wade JC. 2005. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of skin and soft-tissue infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases 41, 1373-1406.

Stryjewski ME, Chambers HF. 2008. Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clinical Infectious Diseases 46, 368-377.

Stulberg DL, Penrod MA, Blatny RA. 2002. Common bacterial skin infections. American Family Physician 66, 119-128.

Suetens C, Hopkins S, Kolman J, Diaz Högberg L. 2013. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Point Prevalence survey of healthcare associated infections and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals. Sweden: ECDC.

Swartz MN. 2004. Cellulitis. New England Journal of Medicine 350, 904-912.

Talan DA, Krishnadasan A, Gorwitz RJ, Fosheim GE, Limbago B, Albrecht V, Moran GJ. 2011. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft-tissue infections in US emergency department patients, 2004 and 2008. Clinical Infectious Diseases 53, 144-149.

Thornton MJ. 2002. The biological actions of estrogens on skin. Experimental Dermatology 11, 487-502.

Todar K. 2008. The bacterial flora of humans. http://textbookofbacteriology.net/normalflora.html (Version current at February 12, 2008).

US Food and Drug Administration. 2013. Guidance for industry. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections: developing drugs for treatment. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Van Hal SJ, Paterson DL. 2011. New Gram- positive antibiotics: better than vancomycin?. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 24, 515-520.

Vinh DC, Embil JM. 2005. Rapidly progressive soft tissue infections. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 5, 501-513.

Walvekar PR, Naik VA, Wantamutte AS, Mallapur MD. 2006. Impact of child to child programme on knowledge, attitude practice regarding diarrhoea among rural school children. Indian Journal of Community Medicine 31, 56-59.

Wang JM, Lim HK. 2014. Necrotizing fasciitis: eight-year experience and literature review. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 18, 137-143.

Wilson SE. 1998. The management of skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults: a review of empiric antimicrobial therapy. International Journal of Clinical Practice 52, 414-417.

World Health Organization. 2005. Epidemiology and management of common skin diseases in children in developing countries. No. WHO/FCH/CAH/05.12. World Health Organization.

Yeung SW, Chan PF, Lai KPL, Chow KL, Tsang ML, CHAO DVK. 2018. The prevalence and the associated factors of cutaneous manifestations in Chinese patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a primary care diabetes clinic in Hong Kong. Journal of Diabetes Research and Therapy 4. DOI: 10.16966/2380-5544.136

Yong JM, Holdsworth RJ, Parratt D. 1994. Necrotising fasciitis. The Lancet 343, 1427-1428.