Soil and water conservation measures and challenges in Kenya; A review

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Review Paper 01/06/2018
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Soil and water conservation measures and challenges in Kenya; A review

George Njomo Karuku
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.12( 6), 116-145, June 2018.
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The preservation and sustainable development of soil and water resources is one of the basic principles for the development of Kenya. Throughout the course of history, all the social improvement and economic development are deeply concerned with soil loss and ecological environmental protection. Poor soil and water conservation measures will lead to land degradation that are either natural or human induced. Natural hazards include land topography and climatic factors such as steep slopes, landslides from frequent floods, blowing of high velocity winds, rains of high intensity, strong leaching in humid regions and drought conditions in the dry regions. It is now common sense that soil and water conservation is the insurance for national ecology and its development. Consequences to land degradation leads to increased use of inputs and greater costs where farmers attempt to combat reduction in yields with increased inputs, particularly fertilizers. For the past long period of time, soil and water loss has been recognized as number one killer to the ecological environment and Kenya is at critical conditions for its development with complicated geological conditions and accelerated human destruction and serious soil and water losses. Based on historical documents, experience and detailed data analysis, this paper aims to review the general characteristics of soil and water loss, to explore the relationship between soil and water conservation and sustainable economic development, and to provide relevant strategies for soil and water conservation in Kenya.


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