The effect of seed pretreatment by salicylhydroxamic acid on germination indices of safflower under salinity stress

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2013
Views (240) Download (7)

The effect of seed pretreatment by salicylhydroxamic acid on germination indices of safflower under salinity stress

Rasool Mohammadi Echi, Davood Eradatmand Asli, Sied Javad Vajedi, Zahra Fakharian Kashani
Int. J. Biosci.3( 6), 181-189, June 2013.
Certificate: IJB 2013 [Generate Certificate]


In order to study the effect of seed pretreatment by salicylhydroxamic acid on germination indices and enzymes activity of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. var. Esfahan 14) under salinity stress in Iran. The experiment was laid out in a factorial design with four salicylhydroxamic acid levels of 0 (control), 50, 75, 100 ppm and four levels of salt stress condition with NaCl including 0 (control), 75, 140, 210 mg/lit in three replications. The variety of the selected seeds is Esfahan 14. Pre-sowing seed treatments were applied for eight hours duration with salicylhydroxamic acid. The results of this investigation showed that salinity stress caused a significant reduction in germination percentage of the safflower seeds. Concentration of NaCl by 210 mg/ lit caused to the most reduction in germination as compared to the control treatment. Seed salicylhydroxamic acid-priming treatments improved seed germination and early seedling growth included germination percentage, coleoptiles and radical length and seedling dry matter accumulation of both control and salt stress conditions. Furthermore, the results of this experiment showed a significant reduction in enzyme activities in salicylhydroxamic acid seed priming. These results have practical implications in that the pre-sowing seed treatment with salicylhydroxamic acid could enhance the seed germination and early seedling growth characteristics of safflower plant in salinity condition.


Aldesuquy HS, Mankarios AT, Awad HA. 1998. Effect of some antitranspirants on growth, metabolism and productivity of salinetreated wheat plants. Induction of stomatal closure, inhibition of transpiration and improvement of leaf turgidity. Acta Botany Hungery 41, 1–10.

Barkosky RR, Einhellig FA. 1993. Effects of salicylic acid on plant–water relationships. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19, 237–247.

Bates LS, Waldern RP, Teave ID. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant and Soil 39, 205-207.

Bezrukova M, Sakhabutdinova V, Fatkhutdinova R, Kyldiarova R.A, Shakirova I, Sakhabutdinova F.A.R. 2001. The role of hormonal changes in protective action of salicylic acid on growth of wheat seedlings under water deficit. Agrochemical 2, 51–54.

Bohnert HJ, Nelson DE, Jensen RG. 1995. Adaptation to environmental stresses. Plant Cell 7, 1099–1111.

Bor M, Ozdemir F, Turkan I. 2003. The effect of salt stress on lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in leaves of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. And wild beet Beta maritima L. Plant Science 164, 77–84.

Borsani  O,  Valpuesta  V,  Botella  M.A.  2001. Evidence for a role of salicylic acid in the oxidative damage  generated  by  NaCl  and  osmotic  stress  in Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant Physiology 126, 1024–1030.

Bradford M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Annual Review of Biochemistry 72, 248-254.

Bray EA. 1997.  Plant  responses  to  water  deficit. Trends of Plant Science 2, 48–54.

Rkhanova EA, Fedina AB, Kulaeva ON. 1999. Effect of salicylic acid and (2´-5´)-oligoadenylates on protein synthesis in tobacco leaves under heat shock conditions: A comparative study. Russ. Journal of Plant Physiology 46, 16–22.

Cakmak I, Horst W. 1991. Effect of aluminium on lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase activities in root tip of soybean (Glysin max). Plant Physiology 83, 463-468.

Chen Z, Ricigliano JR, Klessig DF. 1993. Purification and characterization of a soluble salicylic acid binding protein from tobacco. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 90, 9533-9537.

Chen Z, Iyer S, Caplan A, Klessig DF, Fan B. 1997. Differential accumulation of salicylic acid and salicylic acid-sensitive catalase in different rice tissues. Plant Physiology 114, 193–201.

Cutt JR, Klessig D.F. 1992. Salicylic acid in plants: A changing perspective. Pharmacy Technology 16, 25–34.

Dat JF, Lopez-Delgado H, Foyer CH, Scott IM. 1998. Parallel changes in H2O2 and catalase during thermo tolerance induced by salicylic acid or heat acclimation in mustard seedlings. Plant Physiology 116, 1351-1357.

De Vos C, Schat H, De Waal M, Vooijs R, Ernst W. 1991. Increased to copper-induced damage of the root plasma membrane in copper tolerant silene cucubalus, Plant Physiology 82, 523-528.

Fariduddin Q, Hayat S, Ahmad A. 2003. Salicylic acid influences net photosynthetic rate, carboxylation efficiency, nitrate reductase activity and seed yield in Brassica juncea L., Photosynthetic a 41, 281-284. 91.6c

Foyer CH, Lopez-Delgado H, Dat JF, Scott IM. 1997. Hydrogen peroxide and glutathione associated mechanisms of acclamatory stress tolerance and signaling. Plant Physiology 100, 241– 254.

Ghanati F, Morita A, Yokota H. 2002. Induction of suberin and increase of liginin content by exess Boron in Tabacco cell. Soil Science. Plant Nutrition 48, 357-364. 2

Ghoulam CF, Ahmed F, Khalid F. 2001. Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environmental& Experiment Botany 47, 139–150.

Giannopolitis C, Ries S. 1997. Superoxid desmutase. I.Occurence in higher plant. Plant Physiology 59, 309-314.

Glass ADM, Dunlop J. 1974. Influence of phenolic acids onion uptake. IV Depolarization of membrane potentials. Plant Physiology 54, 855– 858.

Glass ADM. 1975. Inhibition of phosphate uptake in barley roots by hydroxy-benzoic acids.Photochemistry 14, 2127–2130.

Harper JP, Balke NE. 1981. Characterization of the inhibition of K+ absorption in oat roots by salicylic acid. Plant Physiology 68, 1349–1353.

Horváth E, Janda T, Szalai G, Páldi E. 2002. In vitro salicylic acid inhibition of catalase activity in maize: differences between the isoenzymes and a possible role in the induction of chilling tolerance. Plant Science 163, 1129-1135.

Janda T, Szalai G, Tari I, Paldi E. 1999. Hydroponic treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effects of chilling injury in maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Planta 208, 175-180.

Kawano T, Muto S. 2000. Mechanism of peroxidase actions for salicylic acid-induced generation of active oxygen species and an increase in cytosolic calcium in tobacco cell suspension culture. Experimental Botany 51, 685-693.

Khodary SEA. 2004. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt-stressed maize plants. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 6, 5–8.

Leung J, Bouvier Durand M, Morris PC, Guerrier D, Chedfor F, Giraudat J. 1994. Arabidopsis ABA-response gene ABI1: features of a calcium-modulated protein phosphatase. Plant Science 264, 1448–1452.

Liu D, Jiang W, Gao X. 2003. Effect of cadmium on root growth, cell division and nucleoli in root tip cells of garlic. Biology of Plant 47, 79-83.

Matewally AI, Finkemeir M, Georgi K, Dietz J. 2003. Salicylic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity in barley seedlings. Plant Physiology 132, 272-281.

Mishra N.P, Mishra R.K, Singhal G.S. 1995. Changes in the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes during exposure of intact wheat leaves to strong visual light at different temperatures in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Plant Physiology 102, 903–910.

Mishra A, Choudhuri MA. 1999. Effect of salicylic acid on heavy metal-induced membrane deterioration mediated by lipoxygenase in rice. Biology of Plant 42, 409–415.

Morris KSAH, Mackerness T. 2000. Salicylic acid has a role in regulating gene expression during leaf senescence. Plant Journal 23, 677–685.

Noctor A, Foyer CH. 1998. Ascorbate and glutathione: Keeping active oxygen under control. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 49, 249-279.

Panda SK, Upadhyay RK. 2004. Salt stress induces oxidative alterations and antioxidative defense in the roots of Lemna minor. Biology of Plant 48, 249-253. 1.fc

Rajasekaran LR, Blake TJ. 1999. New plant growth regulators protect photosynthesis and enhance growth under drought of jack pine seedlings. Journal of Plant Growth Regulators 18, 175–181.

Rajasekaran LR, Stiles A, Caldwell CD. 2002. Stand establishment in processing carrots: Effects of various temperature regimes on germination and the role of salicylates in promoting germination at low temperatures. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 82, 443–450.

Raskin I. 1992. Role of salicylic acid in plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 43, 439–463. 2255

Sanchez Casas P, Klessig DF. 1994. A salicylic acid-binding activity and a salicylic acidinhibitable catalase activity are present in a variety of plant species. Plant Physiology 106, 1675-1679.

Senaratna T, Touchell D, Bunn E, Dixon K. 2000. Acetyl salicylic acid (Aspirin) and salicylic acid induce multiple stress tolerance in bean and tomato plant.  Plant  Growth  Regulators 30,  157–161.

Shakirova FM, Bezrukova MV. 1997. Induction of wheat resistance against environmental salinization by salicylic acid. Biology Bulletin 24, 109–112.

Shakirova FM, Sahabutdinova DR. 2003.Changes in the hormonal status of wheat seedlings induced by salicylic aicd and salinity. Plant Science 164, 317-322.

Shim IS, Naruse Y, Kim YH, Kobayashi K, Usui K. 1999. Scavenging activity of NaCl induced activated oxygen in two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars differing in salt tolerance. Journal of Tropical Agriculture 43, 32–41.

Shirasu K, Nakajima H, Rajashekar K, Dixon RA, Lamb C. 1997. Salicylic acid potentiates an agonist-dependent gain control that amplifies pathogen signal in the activation of defense mechanisms. Plant Cell 9, 261–270.

Singh B,  Usha K.  2003.  Salicylic  acid  induced physiological and biochemical changes in wheat seedlings under water stress. Plant Growth Regulators 39, 137–141.

Smirnoff N. 1993.The role of active oxygen in the response of plants to water deficit and desiccation. New Phytology 125, 27-58.

Srivastava   MK,   Dwivedi   UN.   2000.    Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid. Plant Science 158, 87–96.

Sun TP, Gubler F. 2004. Molecular mechanism of gibberellin signaling in plants. Molecular Biology 55,197–223. .141753

Szalai G, Tari I, Janda T, Pestenácz A, Páldi E. 2000. Effects of cold acclimation and salicylic acid on changes in ACC and MACC contents in maize during chilling. Biology of Plant 43, 637-640.

Tari I, Csiszár J, Szalai G, Horváth F, Pécsváradi A, Kiss G, Szepesi Á, Szabó M, Erdei L. 2002. Acclimation of tomato plants to salinity stress after a salicylic acid pre-treatment. Acta Biology 46, 55-56.

Yonis ME, Abbas MA, Shukry WM. 1993. Effect of salinity of growth and metabolism of Phaseolus vulgaris. Biology of Plant 35, 417- 424.

Zhang J, Kirkham MB. 1996. Lipid peroxidation in sorghum and sunflower seedlings as affected by ascorbic acid, benzoic acid, acid and propyl gallate. Journal of Plant Physiology 149, 489–493.