Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

A study on the quality of wheat grain stored in straw-clay bin

Research Paper | January 1, 2015

| Download 6

Shakeel Hussain Chattha, Che Man Hasfalina, Teang Shui Lee, Benish Nawaz Mirani, Muhammad Razif Mahadi

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 1), 428-437, January 2015


JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


The adoption of poor storage techniques usually results in tremendous post-harvest losses and leads to the shortage of grains to feed the overwhelming population. The straw-clay bin was developed as one of the viable solutions to obtain a high quality stored wheat and higher income to the farmer by storing wheat at harvest and sell it in the off-season at higher rates. Straw-clay bin was evaluated by storing wheat for one year and showed promising results. Fungal damage and grain weight loss were limited to 9% and 1.27%, respectively. Germination capacity, protein, fat, starch and ash of wheat grains decreased from 94 to 74%, 12.46 to 11.78%, 3.03 to 2.4%, 65.55 to 64.87%, and 2.04 to 1.76%, respectively. The study has revealed that straw-clay bin provide a safe and convenient method for farmers to preserve their agricultural commodities. Hence, the adoption of straw-clay bin must be encouraged in the developing countries.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

A study on the quality of wheat grain stored in straw-clay bin

AACC. 2000. Approved methods of american association of cereal chemists. The American Association of Cereal Chemists. Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.

Addo S, Birkinshaw LA, Hodges RJ. 2002. Ten years after the arrival in Ghana of larger grain borer: farmers’ responses and adoption of IPM strategies. International Journal of Pest Management 48, 315-325.

Adejumo BA. 2012. Development of a sandcrete block rhombus. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences 4, 16- 22.

Ahmad M, Ahmad A. 2002. Storage of food grains. Farming Outlook 1, 16-20.

Aktaruzzaman M, Azad MOK, Shiton AKR, Akter MM, Habiba U. 2010. Effect of biotic and a biotic factors on quality of okra seed kept in different containers. Bangladesh Research Publications Journal 3, 1012- 1020.

Arian MA, Tasneem A, Afzal M. 2004. Quantitative and qualitative losses of Khapra beetle infestation in stored wheat and cost/benefit ratio of fumigation. Pakistan Entomologist 26, 69- 74.

Bamaiyi LJ, Onu I, Amatobi CI, Dike MC. 2006. Effect of callosobruchus maculatus infestation on nutritional loss on stored cowpea grains. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 39, 119- 127.

Barabara K, Mona T, Estein S, Birgitte A. 2004. Alternaria and Fusarium in Norwegain grains of reduced quality –a matched pair sample study. International Journal of Food Microbiology 93, 51- 62.

Bostan N, Naeem M. 2002. Evaluation of resistance in some wheat cultivars to Tribolium castaneum under laboratory conditions. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 1, 95- 98.

Buriro M, Oad FC, Keerio MI, Gandahi AW, Laghari GM. 2012. Impact of storage sources on physicochemical properties of various wheat varieties. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 28, 185- 190.

Eticha F, Tadesse A. 1999. Insect pests of farm-stored sorghum in the Bako area. Pest Management Journal of Ethiopia 3, 53- 60.

FAO. 1987. Construction and operation of small solid wall bins. FAO Agricultural Bulletin No. 69. FAO, Rome.

FAO. 1985. Prevention of post- harvest food losses: a training manual. FAO, Rome.

GC YD. 2006. Efficacy of indigenous plant materials and modified storage structures to insect pests of maize seed during on farm storage. Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science 27, 69- 76.

Government of Pakistan (GOP). 2013. Pakistan economic survey, finance division, economic advisor’s wing, Islamabad, Pakistan. p. 21- 22.

Government of Pakistan (GOP). 2008. Economic survey, finance division, economic advisor’s wing, Islamabad, Pakistan. p. 22.

Gras PW, Kaur S, Lewis DA, Riordan BO, Suter DAI, Thomson WKT. 2000. How and why to keep wheat quality constant. In: Australian Post Harvest Conference, p. 195-198.

Hameed A, Qayyum HA, Ali A. 1984. Biochemical factors affecting susceptibility of flour wheat varieties to Trogoderma granarium Everts. Pakistan Entomologist 6, 57-64.

Harris KL, Blad CJL. 1978. Post harvest loss assessment. American Association of Cereal Chemist. Wshington, DC, USA.

Hossain MS, Kabiraj RC, Hasan MA, Shaheen MRUB, Alazad MAK. 2011. Effect of biotic and abiotic factors on the quality of black gram seed. Bangladesh Research Publications Journal 5, 103- 110.

Huyguebaert G, Schoner FJ. 1999. Influence of storage and addition of enzyme on metabolisable energy content of wheat. 1. Impact of storage and enzyme addition. Archiv Fur Geflugelkunde 63, 13- 20.

Ilelejia KE, Maier DE, Woloshukb CP. 2007. Evaluation of different temperature management strategies for suppression of Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) in stored maize. Journal of Stored Products Research 43, 480- 488.

ISTA. 1996. International rules for seed testing. Vol. 24, International Seed Testing Association, Zurich, Switzerland.

Jood S, Kapoor AC, Singh R.1993. Available carbohydrates of cereal grains as affected by storage and insect infestation. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 43, 45-54.

Jood S, Kapoor AC. 1993. Protein and uric acid contents of cereal grains as affected by insect infestation. Food Chemistry 46, 143- 146.

Jood S, Kapoor AC, Singh R. 1996. Chemical composition of cereal grains as affected by storage and insect infestation. Tropical Agriculture 73, 161- 164.

Kankolongo MA, Hell K, Nawa IN. 2009. Assessment for fungal, mycotoxin and insect spoilage in maize stored for human consumption in Zambia. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 89, 1366- 1375.

Kent NL, Evers AD. 1993. Technology of cereals. 4th ed. Elsevier Science Ltd, U.K. p. 104.

Khattak SU, Kamal S, Ullah K, Ahmad S, Khan AU, Jabbar A. 2000. Appraisal of rainfed wheat lines against Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 32, 131- 134.

Lamboni Y, Hell K. 2009. Propagation of mycotoxigenic fungi in maize stores by postharvest insects. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science 29, 31- 39.

Lemessa F, Bultosa G, Wakgari W. 2000. Quality of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) stored in traditional underground pits: Case studies in two agro-climatic zones in Hararghe, Ethiopia. Journal of Food Science and Technology 37, 238- 244.

Malaker PK, Mian IH, Bhuiyan RK, Akanda AM, Reza MM. 2008. Effect of storage containers and time on seed quality of wheat. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 33, 469- 477.

Mersal IF, El-Emam AA, Amal M. 2006. Effect of storage period, seed moisture content and insecticides treatment on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed quality. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor 44, 111- 124.

Metananda KA, Weerasena SL, Liyanage Y. 2001. Effect of Storage Environment, Packaging material and Seed Moisture Content on Storability of Maize (Zea mays L.) seeds. Annals of Srilanka Department of Agriculture 3, 131- 142.

Nasir M, Butt M, Anjum FM, Sharif K, Minhas R. 2003. Effect of moisture on shelf life of wheat flour. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 5, 458- 459.

Nguyen VN. 2001. Rice Production, Consumption and Nutrition. FAO, Rome.

Obetta S, Daniel C. 2007. Preliminary investigation in to some quality control indices for selected stored grain in Makurdi, Nigeria. Nigerian Food Journal 25, 117- 129.

Ogendo JO, Deng AL, Belmain SR, Walker DJ, Musandu AAO. 2004. Effect of insecticidal plant materials, Lantana camara L. and Tephrosia vogelii Hook, on the quality parameters of stored maize grains. Journal of Food Technology in Africa 9, 29-35.

Paraginski RT, Vanier NL, Berrios JDJ, Oliveira M, Elias MC. 2014. Physicochemical and pasting properties of maize as affected by storage temperature. Journal of Stored Products Research 59, 209- 214.

Rani PR, Chelladurai V, Jayas DS, White NDG, Kavitha-Abirami CV. 2013. Storage studies on pinto beans under different moisture contents and temperature regimes. Journal of Stored Products Research 52, 78- 85.

Reed C, Doyungan S, Loerger B, Getchell A. 2007. Response of Storage Molds to Different Initial Moisture Contents of Maize (Corn) Stored at 25 °C, and effect on respiration rate and nutrient Composition. Journal of Stored Products Research 43, 443- 458.

Rehman A, Sultana K, Minhas N, Gulfraz M, Raja GK, Anwar Z. 2011. Study of most prevalent wheat seed-borne mycoflora and its effect on seed nutritional value. African Journal of Microbiology Research 5, 4328- 4337.

Saleemullah, Iqbal A, Khalil IA, Shah H. 2006. Aflatoxin contents of stored and artificially inoculated cereals and nuts. Food Chemistry 98, 699- 703.

Samuels R, Modgil R. 1999. Physico-chemical changes in insect infested wheat stored in different storage structures. Journal of Food Science and Technology 36, 479- 482.

Sayed TS, Hirad FY, Abro GH. 2006. Resistance of different stored wheat varieties to khapra beetle, trogoderma granarium (Everst) and lesser grain borer, Rhizopertha Dominica (Fabricus). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 9, 1567- 1571.

Shah WH, Rehman ZU, Kausar T, Hussain A. 2002. Storage of wheat with ears. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 17, 206- 209.

Simic B, Popovic R, Sudaric A, Rozman V, Kalinovic I, Cosic J. 2007. Effect of storage condition on seed oil content of maize, soybean and sunflower. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 72, 211- 213.

Sinha RN. 1984. Effect of weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infestation on abiotic and biotic quality of stored wheat. Journal of Economic Entomology 77, 1483- 1488.

South JB, Morrison WR, Nelson OE. 1991. A relationship between the amylose and lipid contents of starches from various mutants for amylose contents in maize. Journal of Cereal Science 14, 267-278.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH. 1980. Principles and procedures of statistics. London: McGraw Hill.

Stephen OF, Olajuyigbe O. 2006. Studies on stored cereal degradation by Alternaria tenuissima. Acta Botanica Maxicana 77, 31- 40.

Strelec I, Komlenic DK, Jurkovic V, Jurkovic Z, Ugarcic-Hardi Z. 2010. Quality parameter changes in wheat varieties during storage at four different storage conditions. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 75, 105- 111.

Stroshine R, Tuite J, Foster G, Baker K. 1984. Self-study guide for grain drying and storage. Purdue Research Foundation, W. Lafayette, IN, p.131.

Sur R, Nagi HPS, Saarma S, Sekhon KS. 1993. Storage changes in the quality of sound and sprouted flour. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 44, 35- 44.

Weinberg YY, Chen Y, Finkelman S, Ashbell G, Navarro S. 2008. The effect of moisture level on high-moisture maize (Zea mays L.) under hermetic storage conditions- in vitro studies. Journal of Stored Products Research 44, 136- 144.

White NDG, Jayas DS. 1991. Factors affecting the deterioration of stored flaxseed including the potential of insect infestation. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 71, 327- 337.

Williams JH. 2004. Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences and interventions. African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, 1106- 1122.