Int. J. Biosci.12(6), 391-399, June 2018
We investigated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts and essential oils from two species of thyme: Thymus vulgaris and Thymus hyemalis. Plant extracts were obtained using two techniques (maceration and sonication) combined with two solvents (methanol and ethyl acetate). Antimicrobial activities were tested against four strains namely: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 3366, and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. DPPH was used to assess antioxidant activities. Statistical analyses performed demonstrated that plant extracts and essential oils yields were impacted significantly by plant species, extraction technique, solvent and their interactions. Extraction using sonication combined with methanol allowed a better recovery of plant extracts as compared to classic maceration. Moreover, Thymus vulgaris was higher in terms of yield, phenolics content, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Plant extracts and essential oils showed potential inhibitory effects on the majority of microbial strains involved in this study. The best records of inhibitory zone diameters of extracts were found in Escherichia coli. However for essential oils, Staphylococcus aureus had the most important record of inhibitor effect. These effects could be attributed to phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Further investigations are needed toward to their use for medicinal and therapeutic applications.
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