Assessment of physico-chemical and functional properties of native and modified “Kponan” yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata complex) cultivar starches

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/03/2016
Views (347) Download (28)

Assessment of physico-chemical and functional properties of native and modified “Kponan” yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata complex) cultivar starches

Koné Daouda, Djè Kouakou Martin, Koné Martial Fankroma, Dabonné Soumaila, Kouamé Lucien Patrice
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.8( 3), 10-25, March 2016.
Certificate: IJAAR 2016 [Generate Certificate]


The starch of “Kponan” yam cultivar was isolated and was modified through oxidation, acetylation, acid modification and enzymatic modification. The various modified starches of “Kponan” yam cultivar and its native starch were characterized in terms of morphological characteristics, some proximate composition and functional properties. Results obtained showed that the starch granules were Polyhedral and Ovotriangular in shape. The granule size ranged from 7.55µm – 53.47µm. Chemical and enzymatic modifications didn’t alter the granule morphology. Proximate composition analysis revealed that moisture, protein, fat and ash contents were reduced after modification and were ranged from 08.26 % dw to 10.11% dw, 0.13 % dw to 0.18 % dw, 0.07 % dw to 0.11 % dw and 0.51 % dw to 0.83 % dw respectively. As for functional properties, WAC, OAC, LGC, syneresis and PC were determined. Our results indicated that modification such as oxidation, acetylation and enzymatic modification increased meaningfully (p<0.05) the WAC and OAC of native starch while acid modification decreased them significantly (p<0.05). It appeared significant differences (p<0.05) between the OAC values of starches, whatever the oil type is. Otherwise, the LGC of the native starch was 9% (w/v) and increased after oxidation (11%) and acetylation (10%), whereas it decreased in acid modified (8%) and enzymatic modified (6%) starches. Syneresis tendency was reduced after oxidation, acetylation and enzymatic modification but increased following acid modification. Studies conducted on paste clarity revealed that percentage transmittance (650 nm) increased after chemical modifications (oxidation and acetylation) and enzymatic modification whereas acid modification reduced it.


Adebowale KO, Afolabi TA, Lawal OS. 2002. Isolation, chemical modification and physicochemical characterization of Bambarra (Voandzeia substerranean) starch and flour. Food Chemistry 78, 305-311.

Akinayo ET, Oshodi AA, Esuoso KO. 1999. Effects of NaCl ionic strength and pH on the foaming and gelation of pigeon pea (Cajanins cajan) protein concentrates. Food Chemistry 66, 51-56.

Alyeleye  FB,  Akinbala  JO,  Oguntimein  GB. 1993. Chemical factors affecting acetylation of cassava starch. Starch/Stärke 54, 443-445.

Amani NG, Buleon A, Kamenan A, Colonna P. 2004. Variability in starch physicochemical and functional properties of yam (Dioscorea sp.) cultivated in Ivory Coast. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84, 2085-2096.

Amani NG, Aka KG, N’dri YD, Degbeu CK, Sako A. 2008. Evolution of physico-chemical properties of precocious yam starch (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata) during the tuberization. International Journal of Biological and chemical sciences 2, 324-330.

Amani NG, Kamenan A, Sabaté AR, Colonna P. 2005. Stability of yam starch gels during processing. African Journal of Biotechnology 4, 94-101.

Amani NG, Tetchi FA, Coulibaly A. 2004. Propriétés physico-chimiques de l’amidon de gingembre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) de Côte d’Ivoire. Tropicultura 22, 77-83.

Anderson RA, Conway HF, Pfeiffer VF, Griffin EL. 1969. Roll and extrusion cooking of grain sorghum grits. Cereal Science Today 14, 372-375.

AOAC. 1995. Officiel Method of Analysis. Association of Agricultural Chemistry, Washington D.C. 16th eds. Vol.II. 34 p.

Attaie H, Zakhia N, Bricas N. 1998. Etat des connaissances et de la recherche sur la transformation et les utilisations alimentaires de l’igname. In L’igname, plante séculaire et culture d’avenir. Actes du séminaire international.Cirad-Inra-Orstom-Coraf, 3-6 juin, Montpellier, France (eds. Berthaud, J.: Bricas, N.: Marchand, J.-L.), 275-284.

Ayucitra A. 2012. Preparation and Characterisation of Acetylated Corn Starches. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications 3, 156-159.

Badenhuizen NP. 1969. The biogenesis of starch granules in higher plants. New York, Appleton Crofts, 34-37.

Callghan PJ, Lelieve J. 1985. The size and shape of amylopectin: A study using pulsed – filled Gradient Nuclear magnetic resonance. Biopolymers 24, 441.

Chew SHK, Bhupinder NH, Karim AA, Fazilah A. 2011. Effect of fermentation on the composition of Centell asiatica teas. American Journal of Food Technology 6, 581-593.

Chibuzo IM. 2012. Physicochemical and retrogradation characteristics of modified sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. (Lam)) starch. Journal of Agriculture and Food Technology 2, 49-55.

Coffman AW, Garcia VV. 1977. Functional properties and amino acid contents of protein isolate from mung bean flour. Journal of Food Technology 12, 473-484.

Coursey DG. 1973. Cassava as food: Toxicity and technology. In Nestel, B., and MacIntyre, R., eds, Chronic cassava toxicity, Ottawa, Canada, IDRC, IDRC-10e, 27-36.

Craig SAS, Maningat CC, Seib PA, Hoseney RC. 1989. Starch paste clarity. Cereal Chemistry 66, 173-182.

De  Vizcarrondo  CA,  Mariela  AR,  Fanny  P. 2004. Characterisation of Dioscorea bulbifera native starch. Archivos Latinoamericanos Nutricion 54, 241-245.

Emiola LO, Delarosa LC. 1981. Physicochemical characteristics of yam starches. Journal of Food Biochemistry 5, 115-130.

Ettien DJB, Kone B, Kouadio KKH, Kouadio NE, Yao-Kouame A, Girardin O. 2009. Mineral fertilization of feral sols for yam production in Guinean Savanna zone of West Africa: the case of traditional varieties of yam on dystric feral sols Centre Cote d’Ivoire. Journal of Applied Bioscience 23,1394 – 1402.

FAO. 2006. Base de données de la FAO (FAOSTAT). Accès du 14 novembre 2006.

Farhat AI, Oguntona T, Neale RJ. 1999. Characterisation of starches from West Africa yams. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 79, 2105-2112.

Fleche G. 1990. Modifications chimiques de l’amidon. CPCIA. Centre de perfectionnement des cadres des industries agricoles et alimentaires. In: Amidons et derives, Nantes, Francia.

Forssell C, Kitzing P, Bergqvist D. 1995. Cranial nerve injuries after carotid surgery. A prospective study of 663 operations. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 10, 445-449.

Jacobson MR, Obanni M, BeMiller JN. 1997. Retrogradation of starch from different botanical sources. Cereal chemistry 74, 571-578.

Jayakody L, Hoover R, Liu Q, Donner E. 2007. Studies on tuber starches. II. Molecular structure, composition and physicochemical properties of yam (Dioscorea sp.) starches grown in Sri Lanka. Carbohydrate Polymers 69, 148–163.

Lawal OS. 2004. Composition, physicochemical properties and retrogradation characteristics of native, oxidized, acetylated and acid-thinned new cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) starch. Food Chemistry 87, 205-218

Lawal OS. 2005. Studies on the hydrothermal modifications of new cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) starch. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 37, 268-277.

Lawal OS. 2009. Starch hydroxyalkylation: physicochemical properties and enzymatic digestibility of native and hydroxypropylated finger millet (Eleusine coracana) starch. Food Hydrocolloid 23, 415-425.

Lindeboom N, Chang PR, Tyler RT. 2004. Analytical, biochemical and physicochemical aspects of starch granule size, with emphasis on small granule starches: A Review. Starch/Stärke 56, 89-99.

Moorthy SN. 2002. Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Tropical Tuber Starches: A Review. Starch/Stärke 54, 559-592.

Mweta DE, Labuschagne MT, Koen E, Benesi IRM, Saka JDK. 2008. Some properties of starches from cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) and cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) grown in Malawi. African Journal of Food Science 2, 102-111.

Nwokocha LM, Senan C, Williams PA. 2011. Structural, physicochemical and rheological characterization of Tacca involucrata starch Carbohydrate Polymers 86, 789- 796.

Ogungbenle HN. 2007. Effect of Chemical Modification on Starch of Some Legume Flours.Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6, 167-171.

Olayinka CO, Kolawole CI, Ayodeji OO, Lekan MA, Patience FT-O. 2013. Improving Urban Residents’ Awareness of the Impact of Household Activities on Climate Change in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development 6, 56-69.

Ondo OP, Kevers C, Dommes J. 2009. Effects of reducing sugar concentration on in vitro tuber formation and sprouting in yam (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata complex). Plant Cell Tissue And Organ Culture 99, 55-59.

Phillips RD, Chinnan MS, Branch AL, Miller J, Mcwatters KH. 1988. Effects of pre-treatment on functional and nutritional properties of cowpea meal. Journal of Food Sciences 53, 805-809.

Raja MKC, Sindhu P. 2000. Properties of steam-treated arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) starch. Starch /Stärke 52, 471-476.

Rasper V. 1971. Investigations on starches from major starch crops grown in Ghana. III Particle size and particle size distribution. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 22, 572-580.

Sathe SK, Salunkhe DK. 1981. Functional properties of the great Northern bean (Phasoelus vulgaris. L.) Protein, emulsion, foaming, viscosity And gelation properties. Journal of Food Science 46, 71-74.

Scherrer B. 1984. Biostatistique. Gaëtan Morin Editeur, Boucherville, 850 p.

Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR. 1990. Some properties of Amaranthus panuculatas (Rajgeera) starch pastes. Starch /Stärke 42, 5-7.

Singh J, Kaur L, Singh N. 2004. “Effect of acetylation on some properties of corn and potato starches,” Starch 56, 586-601.

Sosulski FW. 1962. The centrifuge method for determining flour absorption in hard red spring wheat. Cereal Chemistry 39, 344-350.

Tester RF, Karkalas J. 2002. Starch. In E. J. Vandamme, S. De Baets, & A. Steinbuchel (Eds.). Biopolymers, polysaccharides II, polysaccharides from eukaryotes. Weinheim: Wiley. Vol. 6, 381-438 pp.

Tetchi FA, Rolland-Sabaté A, Amani GN, Colonna P. 2007. Molecular and physiochemical characteristation of starches from yam, cocoyam, cassava, sweet patato and ginger produced in the Ivory Coast. Journal of Science and Food Agriculture 87, 1906-1916.

Stuart ASC, Cladualdoc MASP, Hosenney RC. 1989. Starch Paste Clarity, Cereal Chemistry 66, 173-182.

Thomas DJ, Atwell WA. 1999. Gelatinization, pasting and retrogradation. In DJ Thomas and WA Arwell, starches: Practical guides for the Food industry. St Paul, Minesota, USA: Eagan Press, 25-29.

Uzomah A, Ibe C. 2011. The functional properties, pasting and baking behaviour of chemically modified sour cassava starches. African Journal of Food Science 5, 686-694.

Wickramasinghe HAM, Takigawa S, Matsura- Endo G, Yamauchi H, Noda T. 2009. Comparative analysis of starch properties of different root and tuber crops of Sri Lanka. Food Chemistry 112, 98-103.

Yusuf AA, Ayedun H, Logunleko GB. 2007. Functional properties of unmodified and modified Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) starches. Nigerian food journal 25,141-149.