Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2020
Views (463) Download (22)


Muhammad Imran, Shahnai Basharat, Sidra Khalid, Maria Aslam, Fatima Syed, Shaista Jabeen, Hafsa Kamran, Muhammad Zia Shahid, Tabussam Tufail, Faiz-ul-Hassan Shah, Awais Raza
Int. J. Biosci.16( 2), 53-70, February 2020.
Certificate: IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Enormous amount of agro-wastes is producing annually during the processing of fruits and vegetables. These by-products are prominent and promising source of bioactive compounds which exhibits health endorsing perspectives such as prevention from cancer insurgence, diabetes preventive, and protection from cardiovascular complications, anti-aging, and prevention from oxidative stress due to their strong antioxidant potential. Among these agro-wastes,citrus peels are rich source of polyphenols as flavanones, flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins and have  health protective effect and act as a potential nutraceutical in the treatment of various non-communicable diseases. These bioactive moieties act as antioxidant thereby scavenging free radical activity and reducing oxidative stress which is cause of burden of diseases. Polyphenols has been used as prebiotic in mitigating gut microbiome and a solution for gastrointestinal disorders. Citrus polyphenols exert health promoting effect in regulating lipid metabolism and treating neurodegenerative diseases.


Abe H, Ishioka M, Fujita Y, Umeno A, Yasunaga M, Sato A, Yoshida Y. 2018. Yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) peel attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine experimental colitis. Journal of oleo science, ess17184.

Apraj VD, Pandita NS. 2016. Evaluation of skin anti-aging potential of Citrus reticulatablanco peel. Pharmacognosy research 8, 160.

Ahmed OM, Hassan MA, Abdel-Twab SM, Azeem MNA. 2017. Navel orange peel hydroethanolic extract, naringin and naringenin have anti-diabetic potentials in type 2 diabetic rats. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 94, 197-205.

Alam MA, Sagor AT, Tabassum N, Ulla A, Shill MC, Rahman GMS, Reza HM. 2018. Caffeic acid rich Citrus macroptera peel powder supplementation prevented oxidative stress, fibrosis and hepatic damage in CCl 4 treated rats. Clinical Phytoscience 4, 14.

Alu’datt MH, Rababah T, Alhamad MN, Al-Mahasneh MA, Ereifej K, Al-Karaki G, Ghozlan KA. 2017. Profiles of free and bound phenolics extracted from Citrus fruits and their roles in biological systems: content, and antioxidant, anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive properties. Food & function 9, 3187-3197.

Ahmed W, Azmat R, Qayyum A, Khan SU, Khan SM, Ahmed S, Moin S. 2019. Extraction of diverse polyphenols in relation with storage periods of Citrus paradisi CV. Shamber through HPLC–DAD technique using different solvent. Journal offood science and technology 56, 384-390.

Ascrizzi R, Taglieri I, Sgherri C, Flamini G, Macaluso M, Sanmartin C, Zinnai A. 2019. Nutraceutical Oils Produced by Olives and Citrus Peel of Tuscany Varieties as Sources of Functional Ingredients. Molecules 24, 65.

Alhoi HH, Edy FI, Nyoman EL. 2018. Antimicrobial Activity of Lemon (Citrus limon) Peel Extract Against Escherichia coli. ASRJETS. 1.

Ballistreri G, Fabroni S, Romeo FV. Timpanaro N, Amenta M, Rapisarda P. 2019. Anthocyanins and Other Polyphenols in Citrus Genus: Biosynthesis, Chemical Profile, and Biological Activity Polyphenols in Plants. Elsevier 195-215

Baba S, Ueno Y, Kikuchi T, Tanaka R, Fujimori K. 2016. A limonoidKihadanin B from immature Citrus unshiu peels suppresses adipogenesis through repression of the Akt-FOXO1-PPARγ axis in adipocytes. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 64, 9607-9615.

Castro VL, Alañón ME, Rodríguez RV, Pérez MS, Hermosín GI, Díaz MC, Jordán J, Galindo MF, Arroyo J. 2016 Bioactive flavonoids, antioxidant behaviour, and cytoprotective effects of dried grapefruit peels (Citrus paradisiMacf.). Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity.

Chaabane M, Elwej A, Ghorbel I, Boudawara T, Zeghal N, Soudani N. 2017. Citrus aurantium L. peel extract mitigates hexavalent chromium-induced oxidative stress and cardiotoxicity in adult rats 8, 18.

Chandrappa CP, Smitha BM, Chandrasekar N, Govindappa M. 2017. Effect of Citrus medica L Fruit Peel Extract on Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells. International Journal of Microbiological Research 8, 43-47.

Chen XM, Tait AR, Kitts DD. 2017. Flavonoid composition of orange peel and its association with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Food chemistry 218, 15-21.

Casacchia T, Occhiuzzi MA, Grande F, Rizzuti B, Granieri MC, Rocca C, Statti G. 2019. A pilot study on the nutraceutical properties of the Citrus hybrid Tacle® as a dietary source of polyphenols for supplementation in metabolic disorders. Journal of Functional Foods 52, 370-381.

Diab KA. 2016. In Vitro Studies on Phytochemical Content, Antioxidant, Anticancer, Immunomodulatory, and Antigenotoxic Activities of Lemon, Grapefruit, and Mandarin Citrus Peels. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 17, 3559-3567.

Ernawita WR, Hesse J, Hipler UC, Elsner P, Böhm V. 2016. Carotenoids of indigenous citrus species from Aceh and its in vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic and antibacterial activities. European Food Research and Technology 242, 1869-1881.

Fayek NM, El-Shazly AH, Abdel-Monem AR, Moussa MY, Abd-Elwahab SM, El-Tanbouly ND. 2017. Comparative study of the hypocholesterolemic, antidiabetic effects of four agro-waste Citrus peels cultivars and their HPLC standardization. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 27, 488-494.

Gao X, Wang C, Ning C, Liu K, Wang X, Liu Z, Meng Q. 2018. Hepatoprotection of auraptene from peels of citrus fruits against thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice by activating farnesoid X receptor. Food & function 9, 2684-2694.

Guo J, Cao Y, Ho CT, Jin S, Huang Q. 2017. Aged citrus peel (chenpi) extract reduces lipogenesis in differentiating 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Functional Foods 34, 297-303.

Guo J, Tao H, Cao Y, Ho CT, Jin S, Huang Q. 2016. Prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes with aged citrus peel (Chenpi) extract. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 64, 2053-2061.

Gui L, Wang J, Yu C, Xiang T, Yu Z, Qiang W, Fang G, Guang L, Xin Z, Hua W. 2018. Prophylactic Effects of Polymethoxyflavone-Rich Orange Peel Oil on Nω-Nitro-L-Arginine-Induced Hypertensive Rats. Applied Sciences 8, 752.

Han HY, Lee SK, Choi BK, Lee DR, Lee HJ, Kim TW. 2019. Preventive Effect of Citrus aurantium Peel Extract on High-Fat Diet-Induced Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver in Mice. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 42, 255-260.

Homayouni F, Haidari F, Hedayati M, Zakerkish M, Ahmadi K. 2018. Blood pressure lowering and anti‐inflammatory effects of hesperidin in type 2 diabetes; a randomized double‐blind controlled clinical trial. Phytotherapy research 32, 1073-1079.

He W, Li X, Peng Y, He X, Pan S. 2019. Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Melanogenic Properties of Essential Oil from Peel of Pomelo cv. Guan Xi. Molecules 24, 242.

Igase M, Okada Y, Ochi M, Igase K, Ochi H, Okuyama S, Ohyagi Y. 2018. Auraptene in the peels of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachibankan) contributes to the preservation of cognitive function: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in healthy volunteers. The journal of prevention of Alzheimer’s disease 5, 197-201.

Joshi R, Kulkarni YA, Wairkar S. 2018. Pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and formulations aspects of Naringenin: an update. Life sciences 215, 43-56.

Kang S, Song S, Lee J, Chang H, Lee S. 2018. Clinical investigations of the effect of Citrus unshiu peel pellet on obesity and lipid profile. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Kim GN, Shin MR, Shin SH, Lee AR, Lee JY, Seo BI, Roh SS. 2016. Study of antiobesity effect through inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity of Diospyros kaki fruit andCitrusunshiu peel. BioMed research international.

Kim JK, Park NH, Hwang JS, Baek JH, Jeong HW. 2018. Effect of Oral Intake of A Mixture Containing Natural Citrus Peel Extract, Vitamin C, and L-Cystine on Skin Brightness in Healthy Women. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research 6, 655-659.

Kim TW, Lee DR, Choi BK, Kang HK, Jung JY, Lim SW, Suh JW. 2016. Hepatoprotective effects of polymethoxyflavones against acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication. Food and Chemical Toxicology 91, 91-99.

Kuo PC, Liao YR, Hung HY, Chuang CW.  Hwang TL, Huang SC, Wu TS. 2017. Anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective constituents from  the peels of Citrus grandis. Molecules 22, 967.

Kawabata K, Yoshioka Y, Terao J. 2019. Role of intestinal microbiota in the bioavailability and physiological functions of dietary polyphenols. Molecules 24, 370.

Lee HJ, Im AR, Kim SM, Kang HS, Lee JD, Chae S. 2018. The flavonoid hesperidin exerts anti-photoaging effect by downregulating matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression via mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent signaling pathways. BMC complementary and alternative medicine 18, 39.

Lin ZH, Luo WT, Chan YF, Su ZY. 2017. Chemopreventive effect of aged citrus peel (Chenpi) extracts against tumor initiator acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through regulating Nrf2 pathway. In CANCER RESEARCH 77, 615.

Li Y, Kandhare AD, Mukherjee AA, BodhankarS L. 2019. Acute and sub-chronic oral toxicity studies of hesperidin isolated from orange peel extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.

Mollace V, Scicchitano M, Paone S, Casale F, Calandruccio C, Gliozzi M, Nucera S. 2019. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipemic Effects of a New Lecithin Formulation of Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders) 19, 136-143.

Nakajima VM, Madeira Jr JV, Macedo GA, Macedo JA. 2016. Biotransformation effects on anti lipogenic activity of citrus extracts. Food chemistry. 197, 1046-1053.

Nishad J, Saha S, Dubey AK, Varghese E, Kaur C. 2019. Optimization and comparison of non-conventional extraction technologies for Citrus paradisi L. peels: a valorization approach. Journal of food science and technology 56, 1221-1233.

Okuyama S, Shinoka W, Nakamura K, Kotani M, Sawamoto A, Sugawara K, Furukawa Y. 2018. Suppressive effects of the peel of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachi Bankan) on astroglial activation, tau phosphorylation, and inhibition of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry 82, 1384-1395.

Onuma W, Asai D, Tomono S, Miyamoto S, Fujii G, Hamoya T, Wakabayashi K. 2017. Anticarcinogenic effects of dried citrus peel in colon carcinogenesis due to inhibition of oxidative stress. Nutrition and cancer 69, 855-861.

Oboh G, Olasehinde TA, Ademosun AO. 2017. Inhibition of enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes and hypertension by essential oils from peels of orange and lemon. International Journal of Food Properties 20, 586–594.

Pan MH, Yang G, Li S, Li MY, Tsai ML, Wu JC, Lai CS. 2017. Combination of citrus polymethoxyflavones, green tea polyphenols, and Lychee extracts suppresses obesity and hepatic steatosis in high‐fat diet induced obese mice. Molecular nutrition & food research 61, 1601104.

Sathiyabama RG, Gandhi GR, Denadai M, Sridharan G, Jothi G, Sasikumar P, Ramos AGB. 2018. Evidence of insulin-dependent signalling mechanisms produced by Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck fruit peel in an insulin resistant diabetic animal model. Food and Chemical Toxicology 116, 86-99.

Selmi S, Rtibi K, Grami D, Sebai H, Marzouki L. 2017. Protective effects of orange (Citrus sinensis L.) peel aqueous extract and hesperidin on oxidative stress and peptic ulcer induced by alcohol in rat. Lipids in health and disease 16, 152.

Setyawati I, Anggraeni R. 2018. Effectiveness of Sweet Orange Peel Extract (Citrus sinensis) on The Improvement of Liver Functions of Animal Trials Induced by Cigarette Smoke. Journal of Young Pharmacists 10, 132.

Shan Y. 2016. Chapter 1–Functional Components of Citrus Peel. In: Comprehensive Utilization of Citrus By-Products. Academic Press, 1-17

Shim JH, Chae JI, Cho SS. 2019. Identification and Extraction Optimization of Active Constituents in Citrus junosSeib ex TANAKA Peel and Its Biological Evaluation. Molecules 24, 680.

Shimizu C, Wakita Y, Inoue T, Hiramitsu M, Okada M, Mitani Y, Nabeshima T. 2019. Effects of lifelong intake of lemon polyphenols on aging and intestinal microbiome in the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 1 (SAMP1). Scientific reports 9, 3671.

Smeriglio A, Cornara L, Denaro M, Barreca D, Burlando B, Xiao J, Trombetta D. 2019. Antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of an ancient Mediterranean citrus (Citrus lumiaRisso) albedo extract: Microscopic observations and polyphenol characterization. Food chemistry 279, 347-355.

Son ES, Park J, Park HR, Han W, Yun DE, Kwon OC, Lee CS. 2018. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Quercetogetin Isolated from Citrus Unshiu Peel Involves Suppression of NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in LPS-induced RAW 264(7), Macrophages.

Sapna B, Shetty Prabu Mahin SI, Shaji V, Bibin TG, Pathinettam  KT, Deepak B, Shaista H, Sreeja S, Darshan DD. 2016. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry 8, 71–77.

Su D, Liu H, Qi X, Dong L, Zhang R, Zhang J. 2019. Citrus peel flavonoids improve lipid metabolism by inhibiting miR-33 and miR-122 expression in HepG2 cells. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. 1-9.

Thieme C, Westphal A, Malarski A, Böhm V. 2019. Polyphenols, Vitamin C, in Vitro Antioxidant Capacity, α-Amylase and COX-2 Inhibitory Activities of Citrus Samples from Aceh, Indonesia. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research.

Tung YC, Chang WT, Li S, Wu JC, Badmeav V, Ho CT, Pan MH. 2018. Citrus peel extracts attenuated obesity and modulated gut microbiota in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Food & function 9, 3363-3373.

Wahyuono R, Hesse J, Hipler UC, Elsner P, Böhm V. 2017. In vitro lipophilic antioxidant capacity, antidiabetic and antibacterial activity of citrus fruits extracts from Aceh, Indonesia. Antioxidants 6, 11.

Wang M, Meng D, Zhang P, Wang X, Du G, Brennan C, Zhao H. 2018. Antioxidant protection of nobiletin, 5-demethylnobiletin, tangeretin, and 5-demethyltangeretin from citrus peel in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 66, 3155-3160.

Wang X, Li S, Wei CC, Huang J, Pan MH, Shahidi F, Ho CT. 2018. Anti-inflammatory effects of polymethoxy-flavones from citrus peels: a review. Journal of food bioactives 3, 76-86.

Xua S, Konga GY, Jiaoa ER. 2019. Tangeretin promotes regulatory T cell differentiation by inhibiting Notch1/Jagged1 signaling in allergic rhinitis. International Immunopharmacology 72, 402-412.

Zheng DG, Hu PJ, Chao XY, Zhou Y, Yang JX, Chen ZB, Yu YX, Cai Y. 2019. Nobiletin induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma C666‐1 cells through regulating PARP‐2/SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway. Food Science and Nutrition 7, 1104-1112.