Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | December 1, 2015

VIEWS 1
| Download 1

Contamination of drinking water from improved sources with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

Lucilyn D. Lahoylahoy-Maratas, Peter D. Blanco

Key Words:


J. Bio. Env. Sci.7(6), 185-195, December 2015

Certification:

JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples from the piped distribution system of Iligan City was assessed for the presence of total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Based on microbial risk assessment specific for drinking water, 60 out of the 108 samples exceeded the value for gastrointestinal risk and of which 54 (90%) exceeded both international and Philippine drinking water guidelines of less than one colony-forming unit (CFU) of E. coli per 100 milliliters of water sample. Fifty-four isolates were cultured and each isolate was tested for susceptibility against four antibiotics namely ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and tetracycline. Thirty-three (61%) of the isolates have shown susceptibility to all four antibiotics. The isolates have also exhibited low resistance rates to these antimicrobials as none was non-susceptible to chloramphenicol, only five (9.2%) were gentamicin-resistant, and six (11.1%) were resistant towards each of ampicillin and tetracycline. The findings of this preliminary study increases awareness on the presence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains in the drinking water system of Iligan City. Although the definite impact of these resistant strains to human health is not yet fully established, it is important to conduct constant monitoring as ignorance to potential risks may result to unnecessary waterborne disease outbreaks.

VIEWS 1

Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
http://innspub.net
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Contamination of drinking water from improved sources with antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli

Akinyemi KO, Oladapo O, Okwara CE, Ibe CC, Fasure KA. 2005. Screening of crude extracts of six medicinal plants used in South-West Nigerian unorthodox medicine for anti-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus activity. BioMed Central Complementary and Alternative Medicine 5, 6. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-6.

Allevi RP, Krometis LH, Hagedorn C, Benham B, Lawrence AH, Ling EJ, Ziegler PE. 2013. Quantitative analysis of microbial contamination in private drinking water supply systems. Journal of Water and Health 11(2), 244-255. doi: 10.2166/wh.2013.152.

Amin S. 2014. Prevalence of bacteria in drinking water in Karachi and their antimicrobial susceptibility. Journal of the Dow University of Health Sciences Karachi 8(2), 49-53.

Anita, Kumar A, Verma AK, Gupta MK, Rahal A. 2014. Multidrug resistant pathogenic Escherichia coli status in water sources and Yamuna River in and around Mathura, India. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 17(4), 540-544.

Bain R, Cronk R, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Bartram J. 2014. Fecal contamination of drinking-water in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Medicine 11(5), e1001644.

Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turck M. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology 45(4), 493-496.

Baum R, Kayser G, Stauber C, Sobsey M. 2014. Assessing the microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: results from the Dominican Republic. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90(1), 121-123. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0380.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2012. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: twenty-second informational supplement. Document M100-S22. Wayne, PA: CLSI.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2015. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests: approved standard-twelfth edition. CLSI document M02-A12. Wayne PA.

Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). 2014. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: 24th informational supplement. CLSI M100-S24. Wayne PA.

Coleman BL, Salvadori MI, McGeer AJ, Sibley KA, Neumann NF, Bondy SJ, Gutmanis IA, McEwen SA, Lavoie M, Strong D, Johnson I, Jamieson FB, Louie M, ARO Water Study Group. 2012. The role of drinking water in the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. Epidemiology and Infection 140(4), 633–642. doi: 10.1017/S0950268811001038.

Department of Health (DOH). 2007. Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water 2007 (AO 2007-0012). Department of Health, San Lazaro Compound, Sta. Cruz, Manila doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001644.

Dunn G, Bakker K, Harris L. 2014. Drinking water quality guidelines across Canadian provinces and territories: jurisdictional variation in the context of decentralized water governance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11(5), 4634-4651. doi:10.3390/ijerph 110504634.

Duru CM, Mbata TI. 2010. The antimicrobial activities and phytochemical screening of ethanolic leaf extracts of Hedranthera barteri Hook and Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf. Journal of Developmental Biology and Tissue Engineering 2(1), 1-4.

Edberg SC, Allen MJ, Smith DB. 1991. Defined substrate technology method for rapid and specific simultaneous enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from water: collaborative study. Journal-Association of Official Analytical Chemists 74(3), 526-529.

Figueira V, Serra EA, Vaz-Moreira I, Brandão TRS, Manaia CM. 2012. Comparison of ubiquitous antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae populations isolated from wastewaters, surface waters and drinking waters. Journal of Water and Health 10(1), 1-10. doi: 10.2166/wh.2011.002.

Freeman MC, Trinies V, Boisson S, Mak G, Clasen T. 2012. Promoting household water treatment through women’s self-help groups in rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity. PLoS ONE 7(9), e44068. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0044068.

Goñi-Urriza M, Capdepuy M, Arpin C, Raymond N, Caumette P, Quentin C. 2000. Impact of an urban effluent on antibiotic resistance of riverine Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas spp.. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(1), 125-132.

Huerta B, Marti E, Gros M, López P, Pompêo M, Armengol J, Barceló D, Balcázar JL, Rodríguez-Mozaz S, Marcé R. 2013. Exploring the links between antibiotic occurrence, antibiotic resistance, and bacterial communities in water supply reservoirs. Science of the Total Environment 456-457, 161-170. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.071.

Janezic KJ, Ferry B, Hendricks EW, Janiga BA, Johnson T, Murphy S, Roberts ME, Scott SM, Theisen AN, Hung KF, Daniel SL. 2013. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from untreated surface waters. Open Microbiology Journal 7, 9-19. doi: 10.2174/1874285801307010009.

Johnson JR, Kuskowski MA, Smith K, O’Brya n TT, Tatini S. 2005. Antimicrobial-resistant and extra intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in retail foods. Journal of Infectious Diseases 191(7), 1040-1049.

Jouini A, Ben SK, Sáenz Y, Klibi N, Costa D, Vinué L, Zarazaga M, Boudabous A, Torres C. 2009. Detection of multiple-antimicrobial resistance and characterization of the implicated genes in Escherichia coli isolates from foods of animal origin in Tunis. Journal of Food Protection 72(5), 1082-1088.

Lopez-Cerero L, Egea P, Serrano L, Navarro D, Mora A, Blanco J, Doi Y, Paterson DL, Rodriguez-Baño J, Pascual A. 2011. Characterisation of clinical and food animal Escherichia coli isolates producing CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ß-lactamase belonging to ST410 phylogroup A. International Journal of Antimicrobrial Agents 37(4), 365–367. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.01.001.

aMartinez JL. 2009. The role of natural environments in the evolution of resistance traits in pathogenic bacteria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Biological Sciences 276, 2521-2530. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0320.

bMartinez JL. 2009. Environmental pollution by antibiotics and by antibiotic resistance determinants  Environmental Pollution 157(11), 2893–2902. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.051.

Manji PL, Antai SP, Jacob IO. 2012. Incidence of Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms and antibiotic resistant strains of Escherichia coli in rural water supplies in Calabar South Local Government Area. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 4(9), 230-237.

Nabeela F, Azizullah A, Bibi R, Uzma S, Murad W, Shakir SK, Ullah W, Qasim M, Hader DP. 2014. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan – a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International 21(24), 13929-13942. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3348-z.

Odwar JA, Kikuvi G, Kariuki JN, Kariuki S. 2014. A cross-sectional study on the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meats sold in Nairobi, Kenya. BioMed Central Research Notes 7, 627. doi:10.1186/1756-0500-7-627.

Onda K, LoBuglio J, Bartram J. 2012. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 9(3), 880–894. doi:10.3390/ijerph9030880.

Oyetao VO, Akharaiyi FC, Oghumah M. 2007. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Escherichia coli isolated from water obtained from wells in Akure Metropolis. Research Journal of Microbiology 2(2), 190-193. doi: 10.3923/jm.2007.190.193.

Phongpaichit S, Liamthong S, Mathew AG, Chethanond U. 2007. Prevalence of class 1 integrons in commensal Escherichia coli from pigs and pig farmers in Thailand. Journal of Food Protection 70(2), 292-299.

Phongpaichit S, Wuttananupan K, Samasanti W. 2008. Class 1 integrons and multidrug resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from human stools. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 39(2), 279-287.

Pruden A, Larsson DGJ, Amézquita A, Collignon P, Brandt KK, Graham DW, Lazorchak JM, Suzuki S, Silley P, Snape JR, Topp E, Zhang T, Zhu Y. 2013. Management options for reducing the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to the environment. Environmental Health Perspectives 121(8), 878-885. doi:10.1289/ehp.1206446.

Ram S, Vajpayee P, Shanker R. 2008. Contamination of potable water distribution systems by multiantimicrobial-resistant enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Environmental Health Perspectives 116(4), 448-452. doi: 10.1289/ehp.10809.

Sáenz Y, Zarazaga M, Briñas L, Lantero M, Ruiz-Larrea F, Torres C. 2001. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates obtained from animals, foods and humans in Spain. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 18(4), 353-358.

Schriewer A, Odagiri M, Wuertz S, Misra PR, Panigrahi P, Clasen T, Jenkins MW. 2015. Human and animal fecal contamination of community water sources, stored drinking water and hands in rural India measured with validated microbial source tracking assays. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93(3), 509-516. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0824.

Schroeder CM, White DG, Ge B, Zhang Y, McDermott  PF, Ayers  S, Zhao  S, Meng  J. 2003. Isolation of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli from retail meats purchased in Greater Washington, DC, USA. International Journal of Food Microbiology 85(1-2), 197-202.

Shar AH, Kazi YF, Zardari M, Soomro IH. 2007. Enumeration of total and fecal coliform bacteria in drinking water of Khairpur City, Sindh, Pakistan. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology 24(2), 163-165. doi: 10.3329/bjm.v24i2.1266.

Shehabi AA, Odeh JF, Fayyad M. 2006. Characterization of antimicrobial resistance and class 1 integrons found in Escherichia coli isolates from human stools and drinking water sources in Jordan. Journal of Chemotherapy 18(5), 468-472.

Subba P, Joshi DR, Bhatta DR. 2013. Antibiotic resistance pattern and plasmid profiling of thermotolerant Escherichia coli isolates in drinking water. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council 11(23), 44-48.

Tadesse DA, Zhao S, Tong E, Ayers S, Singh A, Bartholomew MJ, McDermott PF. 2012. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Escherichia coli from humans and food animals, United States, 1950-2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18(5), 741-749. doi: 10.3201/eid1805.111153.

Talukdar PK, Rahman M, Rahman M, Nabi A, Islam Z, Hoque MM, Endtz HP, Islam MA. 2013. Antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors and genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates from household water supply in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PloS ONE 8(4), e61090. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0061090.

Teshager T, Herrero IA, Porrero MC, Garde J, Moreno MA, Domínguez L. 2000. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs at Spanish slaughterhouses. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 15(2), 137-42.

Thorsteinsdottir TR, Haraldsson G, Fridriksdottir V, Kristinsson KG, Gunnarsson E. 2010. Prevalence and genetic relatedness of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from animals, foods and humans in Iceland. Zoonoses and Public Health 57(3), 189-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2009.01256.x.

United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Community Rights. 2002. General comment 15 (2002), The right to water. UN Document E/C.12/2002/11, Geneva, Switzerland: United Nations. Available online: . http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/0/a5458d1d1bbd 713fc1256cc400389e94/$FILE/G.340229.pdf (accessed on November 2, 2015).

United Nations-Water. 2014. A post-2015 global goal for water: synthesis of key findings and recommendations from UN-Water. Available online: http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/pdf/27_01_2014_un-water_paper_on_a_post2015_global_goal_for_water.pdf (accessed on October 31, 2015).

Van  TTH,  Moutafis G, Tran LT,  Coloe,  PJ. 2007.  Antibiotic  resistance  in  food-borne  bacterial contaminants in Vietnam. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73(24), 7906–7911. doi:10.1128/AEM.00973-07.

Vaz-Moreira I, Nunes OC, Manaia CM. 2014. Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance in water habitats: searching the links with the human microbiome. Federation of European Microbiological Societies Microbiology Reviews 38(4), 761-778. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1574-6976.12062.

aWorld Health  Organization     (WHO) and United  Nations  Children’s  Fund  (UNICEF). 2013. Progress on sanitation and drinking-water-2013 update. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Available online: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/81 245/1/9789241505390_eng.pdf (accessed on June 22, 2015).

bWorld Health Organization (WHO) and United  Nations  Children’s  Fund  (UNICEF). 2013. Report on the second meeting of the WHO/UNICEF JMP task force on monitoring drinking-water quality. Available online: http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/2013-Water-Quality-Task-Force-Report-Final.pdf (accessed on November 5, 2015).

Walia SK, Kaiser A, Parkash M, Chaudhry GR. 2004.  Self-transmissible  antibiotic resistance  to ampicillin,   streptomycin, and   tetracyclin   found in Escherichia   coli isolates from contaminated drinking water. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 39(3), 651-662. doi:10.1081/ESE-120027731.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2011. Guidelines for drinking-water quality – 4th edition. WHO: Geneva, Switzerland. Available online: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44584/1/9 789241548151_eng.pdf (accessed on September 5, 2015).

World Health Organization (WHO). 2014. Meeting on the guidelines for drinking-water quality. Singapore meeting report. Geneva, Switzerland:

WHO. Available online: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/S ingapore_meeting_report_2014.pdf?ua=1 (accessed on October 1, 2015).

World Health Organization. 1997. Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd Edition Volume 3, Surveillance and control of community supplies.

Geneva: WHO. Available online: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/g dwqvol32ed.pdf (accessed on November 11, 2015).

Wright GD. 2010. Antibiotic resistance in the environment: a link to the clinic? Current Opinion in Microbiology 13(5), 589–594. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2010.08.005.

Wu S, Dalsgaard A, Hammerum AM, Porsbo LJ, Jensen LB. 2010. Prevalence and characterization of plasmids carrying sulfonamide resistance genes among Escherichia coli from pigs, pig carcasses and human. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 52, 47. doi: 10.1186/1751-0147-52-47.

Xi C, Zhang Y, Marrs CF, Ye W, Simon C, Foxman B, Nriagu J. 2009. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in drinking water treatment and distribution systems. Applied Environmental Microbiology 75(17), 5714-5718.

Zahera M, Rastogi C, Singh P, Iram S, Khalid S, Kushwaha  A.  2011.  Isolation,  identification  and characterization of Escherichia coli from urine samples and  their  antibiotic  sensitivity  pattern.  European Journal of Experimental Biology 1(2), 118-124.

SUBMIT MANUSCRIPT

Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background