Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | April 1, 2015

| Download 2

Delay in fruit ripening: a promising approach for reduction of spoilage and use of hazardous chemicals in Bangladesh

Sajib Barua, Tahsin Rahi, Ekram Ullah, Durjoy Ghosh, Shoeb Ahmed

Key Words:

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.6(4), 163-173, April 2015


IJAAR 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Food safety is a global concern and Bangladesh is no exception. In last few decades, fruit and fruit processing industries have grown rapidly in Bangladesh. To achieve maximum quality in terms of visual appearance, texture, flavor and nutritional value, fruits must be harvested at proper maturity. However, after harvesting, rapid ripening of fruits is responsible for short shelf life. This problem can be addressed either by using preservatives or ripening manipulation. Because of its low cost and availability, Formaldehyde has been widely used as preservatives in Bangladesh despite very hazardous health impacts. Other impure food ripening agents like commercial-grade Calcium carbide is also being used to make the harvesting faster for quicker revenue. These all attributes to very severe health concerns including cancer, male sterility and many more. Considering current situation in Bangladesh, artificially delaying fruit ripening seems to be a promising alternative to overcome the crisis and this is also being practiced in several countries. Fruit ripening process requires production of ethylene during the process and ripening of fruit can be delayed by inhibiting ethylene activity. There are several chemical compounds that can be used as inhibitors of ethylene activity without any significant change in quality and health concern. Here, we present a small review on ethylene inhibitors focusing on scope, prospects, safety and potential of using that in Bangladesh. Some of the promising ripening delaying agents and their effective application doses are also reported, which might be applicable in Bangladesh as an alternative to the hazardous Formaldehyde or carbide application.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Delay in fruit ripening: a promising approach for reduction of spoilage and use of hazardous chemicals in Bangladesh

Ahmad A, Ali ZM, Zainal Z. 2013. Delayed softening of papaya (Carica papaya L. cv. Sekaki) fruit by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) during ripening at ambient and low temperature storage conditions. Australian Journal of Crop Science 7, 750-757.

Atta-Aly MA, Brecht JK, Huber DJ. 2000. Ethylene feedback mechanisms in tomato and strawberry fruit tissues in relation to fruit ripening and climacteric patterns. Postharvest Biology and Technology 20, 151-162.

Ayoub JA, Driver MG, Taub IA. 1989. Use of Ethylene absorbers in extending shelf life. U.S. Army Natick Research, Development, and Engineering Center: Food Engineering Directorate.

Bal E, Celik S. 2010. The Effects of Postharvest Treatments of Salicylic Acid and Potassium Permanganate on the Storage of Kiwifruit. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science 16, 576-584.

Bapat VA, Trivedi PK, Ghosh A, Sane VA, Ganapathi TR, Nath P. 2010. Ripening of fleshy fruit: Molecular insight and the role of ethylene. Biotechnology Advances 28, 94-107.

Barry CS, Giovannoni JJ. 2007. Ethylene and fruit ripening. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 26, 143-159.

Bassetto E, Jacomino AP, Pinheiro AL, Kluge, RA. 2005. Delay of ripening of ‘Pedro Sato’ guava with 1-methylcyclopropene. Postharvest Biology and Technology 35, 303-308.

Bibi F, Baloch MK. 2014. Postharvest Quality and Shelf Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Fruit as Affected by Various Coatings. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 38, 499-507.

Blankenship SM, Dole JM. 2003. 1-Methylcyclopropene: A review. 1-25.

Blasa M, Gennari L, Angelino D, Ninfali P. 2010. Fruit and vegetable antioxidants in health. pp. 37-58. Elsevier Inc.

Bourn D, Prescott J. 2002. A comparison of the nutritional value, sensory qualities, and food safety of organically and conventionally produced foods. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 42, 1-34.

Brecht JK. 2002. [Book Review: Fruit Quality and its Biological Basis]. 460-460 P.

BSS M. 2010. Post-harvest spoilage of fruits, vegetables cause Tk3,392cr losses every year. In The New Nation.

Burg SP, Burg EA. 1962. Role of Ethylene in Fruit Ripening. Plant physiology 37, 179-189.

Choi ST, Huber DJ. 2008. Influence of aqueous 1-methylcyclopropene concentration, immersion duration, and solution longevity on the postharvest ripening of breaker-turning tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 49, 147-154.

Chu TD, Gruen I, Fernando L. 2010. Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropane (1-MCP) on Banana Ripening. Acta Horticulturae (ISHS) 875, 57-64.

Cohen JD. 1996. In vitro Tomato Fruit Cultures Demonstrate a Role for Indole-3-acetic Acid in Regulating Fruit Ripening. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 121, 520-524.

De la Rosa LA, Alvarez-Parrilla E, González-Aguilar GA. 2009. Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals:  Chemistry,  Nutritional  Value,  and Stability. Wiley-Blackwell.

Dhareshwar SS, Stella VJ. 2008. Your prodrug releases formaldehyde: Should you be concerned? No! Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 97, 4184-4193.

Dostal HC, Leopold AC. 1967. Gibberellin delays ripening of tomatoes. Science 158, 1579-80.

Ergun M, Huber DJ. 2004. Suppression of ethylene perception extends shelf-life and quality of ‘sunrise solo’ papaya fruit at both pre-ripe and ripe stages of development. European Journal of Horticultural Science 69, 184-192.

Fischer MH. 1905. The Toxic Effects of Formaldehyde and Formalin. Journal of Experimental Medicine 6, 487-518.

Gatesoupe FJ. 2002. Probiotic and formaldehyde treatments of Artemia nauplii as food for larval pollack, Pollachius pollachius. Aquaculture 212, 347-360.

Golding JB, Shearer D, Wyllie SG, Mc Glasson, WB. 1998. Application of 1-MCP and propylene to identify ethylene-dependent ripening processes in mature banana fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 14, 87-98.

Grichko V, Serek M, Watkins CB, Yang SF, 2006. Father of 1-MCP. Biotechnology advances 24, 355-6.

Harborne JB. 1971. The biochemistry of fruits and their products. I.

Hassan MK. 2010. A guide to postharvest handling of fruits and vegetables. In Postharvest handling of fruits and vegetables.

Hernández-Muñoz P, Almenar E, Valle VD, Velez D, Gavara R. 2008. Effect of chitosan coating combined with postharvest calcium treatment on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) quality during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry 110, 428-435.

Hoeberichts FA, Van Der Plas LHW, Woltering EJ. 2002. Ethylene perception is required for the expression of tomato ripening-related genes and associated physiological changes even at advanced stages of ripening. Postharvest Biology and Technology 26, 125-133.

Hofman PJ, Jobin-Decor M, Meiburg GF, Macnish AJ, Joyce DC. 2001. Ripening and quality responses of avocado, custard apple, mango and papaya fruit to 1-methylcyclopropene. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 41, 567-572.

Kader AA. 2008. Flavor quality of fruits and vegetables. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88, 1863-1868.

Kandungan K, Giberelik A, Mangga B, Indica M, Tuai L, Penyimpanan S. 2013. Postharvest Quality of Mango ( Mangifera Indica L .) Fruit Affected by Different Levels of Gibberellic Acid During Storage. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences 17, 499-509.

Kang GZ, Wang ZX, Sun GC. 2003. Participation of H2O2 in enhancement of cold chilling by salicylic acid in banana seedlings. Acta Botanica Sinica 45, 567-573.

Leslie CA, Romani RJ. 1988. Inhibition of ethylene biosynthesis by salicylic Acid. Plant physiology 88, 833-837.

Liu RH. 2003. Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. American Society for Clinical Nutrition 78, 3-6.

Lolaei A, Kaviani B, Rezaei MA, Raad MK, Mohammadipour R. 2012. Effect of Pre- and Postharvest Treatment of Salicylic Acid on Ripening of Fruit and Overall Quality of Strawberry (Fragaria ananasa Duch cv. Camarosa) Fruit. Annals of Biological Research 3, 4680-4684.

Looney NE, Granger RL, Chu CL, Mander LN, Pharis RP. 1992. Influences Of Gibberellins A4,A4+7 and A4+Iso-A7 on Apple Fruit Quality and Tree Productivity. II. Other Effects on Fruit-Quality and Importance of Fruit Position Within the Tree Canopy. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 67, 841-847.

Madrid M. 2011. Use of 1-mcp to improve shelf life and fruit quality: opportunities and challenges.

Manenoi A, Bayogan ERV, Thumdee S, Paull RE. 2007. Utility of 1-methylcyclopropene as a papaya postharvest treatment. Postharvest Biology and Technology 44, 55-62.

Martinez GA, Chaves AR, Anon MC. 1994. Effect of Gibberellic-Acid on Ripening of Strawberry Fruits (Fragaria-Annanassa Duch). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 13, 87-91.

Mattheis JP. 2008. How 1-methylcyclopropene has altered the Washington State apple industry. HortScience 43, 99-101.

Mir N, Canoles M, Beaudry R, Baldwin E, Pal Mehla C. 2004. Inhibiting tomato ripening with 1- methylcyclopropene. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 129, 112-120.

Moretti CL, Araújo AL, Marouelli WA, Silva WLC. 2002. 1-Methylcyclopropene delays tomato fruit ripening. Horticultura Brasileira 20, 659-663.

Murthy SK, Rao KPG. 1982. Regulation of ripening by chemicals in ‘Alphonso’ mango. Scientia Horticulturae 16, 179-183.

Omero DMA, Alero DV, Errano MS, Urló FB, Arbonell AC, Urgos LB, Iquelme FR. 2000. Exogenous Polyamines and Gibberellic Acid Effects on Peach ( Prunus persica L .). Journal of Food Science 65, 288-294.

Osorio S, Scossa F, Fernie AR. 2013. Molecular regulation of fruit ripening. Frontiers in plant science 4, 198-198.

Paul V, Pandey R, Srivastava GC. 2010. Ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Part I: 1-methylcyclopropene mediated delay at higher storage temperature. Journal of Food Science and Technology 47, 519-526.

Paul V, Pandey R, Srivastava GC. 2012. The fading distinctions between classical patterns of ripening in climacteric and non-climacteric fruit and the ubiquity of ethylene-An overview. Journal of food science and technology 49, 1-21.

Pelayo C, Vilas-Boas EVDB, Benichou M, Kader AA. 2003. Variability in responses of partially ripe bananas to 1-methylcyclopropene. Postharvest Biology and Technology 28, 75-85.

Pereira MEC, Santos DBD, Da Rocha Bispo AS, Santos SBD. 2007. Ripening of ‘ Tainung 1 ’ Papaya Fruit Delayed by 1-Methylcyclopropene. In Proceedings – Florida State Horticultural Society, 259-261.

Ponce P, Carbonari GLR, Lugão AB. 2009. Active Packaging Using Ethylene Absorber to Extend Shelf-life. In International Nuclear Atlantic Conference – INAC.

Rahman MA, Hossain MA, Begum MM, Banu SP, Arfin MS. 2014. Evaluating the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene concentration and immersion duration on ripening and quality of banana fruit. Journal of Post-Harvest Technology; 2(1), (2014).

Raskin I. 1992. Role of Salicylic Acid in Plants. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 43, 439-463.

Richards DE, King KE, Ait-ali T, Harberd NP. 2001. How Gibberellin Regulates Plant Growth and Development: A Molecular Genetic Analysis of Gibberellin Signaling. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 52, 67-88.

Saltveit ME, Jr Sharaf AR. 1992. Ethanol Inhibits Ripening of Tomato Fruit Harvested at Various Degrees of Ripeness without Affecting Subsequent Quality. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 117, 793-798.

Schreiner M, Huyskens-Keil S. 2006. Phytochemicals in Fruit and Vegetables: Health Promotion and Postharvest Elicitors. Critical reviews in plant sciences 25, 267-278.

Shafiee M, Taghavi TS, Babalar M. 2010. Addition of salicylic acid to nutrient solution combined with postharvest treatments (hot water, salicylic acid, and calcium dipping) improved postharvest fruit quality of strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae 124, 40-45.

Shao XF, Tu K, Tu S, Tu J. 2012. A Combination of heat treatment and chitosan coating delays ripening and reduces decay in “gala” apple fruit. Journal of Food Quality 35, 83-92.

Shiga TM, Fabi JP, Nascimento JROD, De Petkowicz CLO, Vriesmann LC, Lajolo FM, Cordenunsi BR. 2009. Changes in cell wall composition associated to the softening of ripening Papaya: Evidence of extensive solubilization of large molecular mass galactouronides. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57, 7064-7071.

Sisler EC. 2006. The discovery and development of compounds counteracting ethylene at the receptor level. Biotechnology advances 24, 357-67.

Sisler EC, Serek M. 1997. Inhihitors of ethylene responses in plants at the receptor level : Recent developments. Physiologia plantarum 100, 577-582.

Southwick SM, Weis KG, Yeager JT, Zhou H. 1995.  Controlling  Cropping  in  Loadel  Cling  Peach using Gibberellin – Effects on Flower Density, Fruit Distribution, Fruit Firmness, Fruit Thinning, and Yield. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 120, 1087-1095.

Srivastava MK, Dwivedi UN. 2000. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid. 158, 87-96.

Su H, Gubler WD. 2012. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on reducing postharvest decay in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Postharvest Biology and Technology 64, 133-137.

Tang X, Bai Y, Duong A, Smith MT, Li L, Zhang L. 2009. Formaldehyde in China: Production, consumption, exposure levels, and health effects. Environment International 35, 1210-1224.

Theologis A. 2015. One rotten apple spoils the whole bushel: The role of ethylene in fruit ripening. Cell 70, 181-184.

Tingwa PO, Young RE. 1975. The Effect of Indole-3-acetic Acid and Other Growth Regulators on the Ripening of Avocado Fruits. Plant physiology 55, 937-40.

Vendrell M. 1970. Acceleration and delay of ripening in banana fruit tissue by gibberellic acid. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences 23, 553-9.

Vicente AR, Manganaris GA, Sozzi GO, Crisosto CH. 2009. Nutritional Quality of Fruits and Vegetables. 57-106. Elsevier Inc.

Watada AE. 1971. Postharvest Physiology of Strawberry Fruits Treated With Sodium Dehydroacetate 1. Midway 96, 177-179.

Watkins CB. 2006. The use of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on fruits and vegetables. Biotechnology advances 24, 389-409.

Watkins CB. 2008. Overview of 1-methylcyclopropene trials and uses for edible horticultural crops. HortScience 43, 86-94.

Watkins CB, Nock JF. 2012. Rapid 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment and delayed controlled atmosphere storage of apples. Postharvest Biology and Technology 69, 24-31.

Watkins  CB,  Nock  JF,  Whitaker  BD.  2000. Responses of early, mid and late season apple cultivars to postharvest application of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) under air and controlled atmosphere storage conditions. Postharvest Biology and Technology 19, 17-32.

Yalpani N, Enyedi AJ, León J, Raskin I. 1994. Ultraviolet light and ozone stimulate accumulation of salicylic acid, pathogenesis-related proteins and virus resistance in tobacco. Planta 193, 372-376.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background