Development and nutritional characterization of nutrients enriched food bars

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2020
Views (246) Download (12)

Development and nutritional characterization of nutrients enriched food bars

Saqib Rehman, Shahid Mahmood, Muhammad Nadeem, Tabussam Tufail, Muhammad Zia Shahid, Ali Saqib, Muzamil Hussain
Int. J. Biosci.16( 2), 89-101, February 2020.
Certificate: IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


The objective of this research was to determine the effects of minerals, fennel and carrots juice on the physico-chemical properties of food bars during storage.Texture in terms of hardness values were from 149.24 to 341.33g. FB0 had less hardness (149.24 g) and it gradually increased towards FB2 (341.33 g) and during storage of 90 days. Same trend was observed for factorability. The lowest water activity (0.555) was observed in FB0 and the highest (0.564) in FB4. The water activity during storage decreased from 0.572 to 0.550 after 90 days. The minimum moisture content was observed in FB0 and the highest in FB4. During storage, moisture content decreased and non-significant change in protein content and fiber content was observed. These food bars provide energy ranged from 372.93 to 389.82 Kcal/100g. The maximum in-vitro protein digestibility values are recorded in FB2 (87.41%) and FB4 (87.30%) while, the minimum (85.78%) in control bar (EF0) indicating that fennel seed saturated with carrot juice increased the in-vitro protein digestibility and similarly improves starch digestibility. Minerals content increased significantly with the addition of fennel seeds and spinach ash in food bars, while the minimum minerals content has been observed in control food bar (FB0) having no added mineral source.


AOAC.2006. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD.

AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Arlington, Va., USA.

Chau CF, Chen CH, Lee MH. 2004. Comparison of the characteristics, functional properties, and in vitro hypoglycemic effects of various carrot insoluble fiber-rich fractions. LWT-Food Science and technology 37(2), 155-160.

De Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E. 2012. Prevalence and trends of stunting among pre-school children, 1990–2020. Public health nutrition 15(1), 142-148.

Gates FK, Dobraszczyk BJ, Stoddard FL, Sontag-Strohm T, Salovaara H. 2008. Interaction of heat–moisture conditions and physical properties in oat processing. 1. Mechanical properties of steamed oat groats.Journal of Cereal Science 47(2), 239–244.

Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Rimm EB, Speizer FE,Willett WC. 2001. The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Annals of internal medicine 134(12), 1106-1114.

Lewicki PP. 2004. Water as determinant of food engineering properties. A review. Journal of Food Engineering 61, 483–495.

Livesey G. 1990. Energy values of unavailable carbohydrate and diets: an inquiry and analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 6l7-37.

Loveday SM, Hindmarsh JP, Creamer LK, Singh H. 2010. Physicochemical changes in intermediate-moisture protein bars made with whey protein or calcium caseinate. Food Research International 43(5), 1321-1328.

Mary ABL, Devi MS. 2016. Malnutrition among school children. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 5(7), 1275-1282.

Maurer G, Fukuda G, Nielsen S. 2005. Development of bean-based granola bars and cereal. Cereal Foods World 50, 27-32.

Mertz ET, MM, Hassen C, Cairnss-Whittern AW, Kirleis L, Tu Axtell JD. 1984. Protein digestibility of protein in sorghum and other major cereals. Proc. National Academic Science USA. 439S-450S.

Munir M, Nadeem M, Qureshi TM, Jabbar S, Atif FA, Zeng X. 2016. Effect of protein addition on the physico-chemical and sensory properties of fruit bars. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 40(3), 559–566.

Nadeem M, Muhammad Anjum F, Murtaza MA, Mueen-ud-Din G. 2012. Development, characterization, and optimization of protein level in date bars using response surface methodology. The Scientific World Journal 518702:1-10.

Nadeem M, Rehman SU, Hussain S, Din GM, Murtaza MA. 2012. Development, Characterization and Optimization of Protein Level in Date Bars Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The Scientific World Journal 2012, 1-10

Niaba KPV, Gabbasi KG, Beugre AG, Amani T, Malan K, Gnakri D. 2013. Nutritional and sensory qualities of wheat biscuits fortified with defatted Macrotermes subhyalinus. International Journal of Chemical Science Technology 3, 25-32.

Onwuka UN, Abasiekong KS. 2006. Production and evaluation of chocolate bars from roasted and unroasted African breadfruit, and bambara groundnut flours. Journal of food processing and preservation 30(5), 534-548.

Passos MEA, Moreira CFF, Pacheco MTB, Takase I, Lopes MLM, Valente-Mesquita VL. 2013. Proximate and mineral composition of industrialized biscuits. Food Sci. Technol, Campinas 33, 323-331.

Pinto MS, Lajolo FM, Genovese MI. 2005. Effect of storage temperature and water activity on the content and profile of isoflavones, antioxidant activity, and in vitro protein digestibility of soy protein isolates and defatted soy flours. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 53, 6340-6.

Raulio S, Roos E, Prättälä R. 2010. School and workplace meals promote healthy food habits. Public health nutrition 13(6A), 987-992.

Rehman S, Nadeem M, Haseeb M, Awan JA. 2012. Development and physic chemical characterization of apricot-date bars. Journal of Agriculture Research 50(3).

Sawaya WN, Khalil JK, Safi WJ, Khatchadourian HA. 1983. Date bars fortified with soy protein isolate and dry skim milk. Journal of Food Science Technology 48, 1503-1506.

Sharma SK, Chaudhary SP, Rao VK, Yadav VK, Bisht TS. 2013. Standardization of technology for preparation and storage of wild apricot fruit bar. Journal of Food Science and Technology 50(4), 784–790.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, DickeyDA. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Ed., McGraw Hill Book Co, New York, USA.

Sun-Waterhouse D, Teoh A, Massarotto C, Wibisono R, Wadhwa S. 2010. Comparative analysis of fruit-based functional snack bars. Food Chemistry 119(4), 1369-1379.

Wansink B, Van Ittersum K, Painter JE. 2006. Ice cream illusions: bowls, spoons, and self-served portion sizes. American journal of preventive medicine 31(3), 240-243.

Yousif AK, Ali MA, Idreese B. 1990. Processing, evaluation and storability of date jelly. Journal of Food Science & Technology 27, 264-267.

Brown P, Grigelmo-Miguel N, Carreras-Boladeras E, Martín-Belloso O. 1999. Development of high-fruit-dietary-fibre muffins. European Food Research and Technology 210(2), 123–128.