Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | June 1, 2013

| Download

Effect of breeding mode, type of muscle and slaughter age on technological meat quality of local poultry population of Gallus gallus species of Benin

P.U. Tougan, M. Dahouda, G. S. Ahounou, C. F. A. Salifou, M. T. Kpodekon, G. A. Mensah, D. N. F. Kossou, C. Amenou, C. E. Kogbeto, A.Thewis, I. A. K. Youssao

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.3(6), 81-97, June 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.6.81-97


IJB 2013 [Generate Certificate]


Indigenous chickens in Benin represent various populations including Holli, Sahoue, Fulani, North and South ecotypes. The current study aims to assess the technological quality of their meat according to genetic type, breeding system and age. Thus, 52 chickens of each ecotype were divided in two lots of 26 birds bred respectively under traditional system and improved system. For each breeding system, 26 cockerels of each ecotype were slaughtered at 20, 24 and 28 weeks old. It appears that the meat of South chickens had the highest shear force (47.76 N), redness (8.08) and chroma (P<0.01). The lowest pH24 was recorded in North (5.66) and Fulani (5.71) ecotypes (P<0.05). The highest luminance was found in meat of North chickens (59.74). Chickens Holli had the lowest yellowness and the highest hue value (3.72). The cooking loss of thigh of Sahoue was higher than in the other genotypes (P<0.05). The chickens bred under traditional system had the highest shear force and luminance (P <0.001), whereas birds of improved system had the highest pH24, yellowness and chroma (P<0.05). The shear force, redness, yellowness, hue, chroma and pH of thigh were higher than those of the breast (P<0.001). The breast was clearer than the thigh-drumstick (58.98 vs 49.09; P<0.001). The luminance, redness, yellowness, chroma and cooking loss decreased with age (P <0.05) while shear force and pH increased (P<0.001). Overall, South chickens provided the toughest and darkest meat, while traditional free range system was more favorable for firm and white chicken meat production.


Copyright © 2013
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Effect of breeding mode, type of muscle and slaughter age on technological meat quality of local poultry population of Gallus gallus species of Benin

Aberle ED, Forrest JC, Gerrard DE, Mills EW. 2001. Principles of Meat Science. 4th edition. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, Iowa. 237p. ISBN 0-7872-4720-0.

Ahuja V, Sen A. 2007. Scope and Space for Small Scale Poultry Production in Developing Countries. In: FAO. 2008. Poultry in the 21st Century: avian influenza and beyond. Proceedings of the International Poultry Conference, held 5–7 November 2007, Bangkok, Thailand. Edited by O. Thieme and D. Pilling. FAO Animal Production and Health Proceedings 9, Rome, 20p.

Ali A, Yilma JN, De Haan N, Gebril Om, Ettel T, Negro-Calduch E, Lubroth J. 2011. Poultry consumer needs and preferences in Egypt. A study report for FAO ECTAD-Egypt. 156p.

Berri C, Jehl N. 2001. Facteurs de variation de la qualité technologique et organoleptique des viandes de poulet. 4e Journées de la Recherche Avicole 27-28-29 mars 2001, Nantes, France. Paris INRA, 245-252.

Berri C, Le Bihan-Duval E, Debut M, Santé-Lhoutellier V, Baéza E, Gigaud V, Jégo Y, Duclos MJ. 2007. Consequence of muscle hypertrophy on characteristics of Pectoralis major muscle and breast meat quality of broiler chickens. Journal of Animal Science 85, 2005–2011, doi: 10.2527/jas.2006-398 originally published online Apr 12, 2007,

Berri C, Wacrenier N, Millet N, Le Bihan-Duval E. 2002. Effect of selection for improved body composition on muscle and meat characteristics of broilers from experimental and commercial lines. Poultry Science 80, 833–838.

Bianchi M, Petracci M, Cavani C. 2006. The Influence of Genotype, Market Live weight, Transportation, and Holding Conditions Prior to Slaughter on Broiler Breast Meat Color.Poultry Science 85, 123–128.

Bonou G. 2006. Diversité génétique de la population locale de volaille de l’espèce Gallus gallus au Nord et au Sud du Bénin. Mémoire DIT, Ecole Polytechnique d’Abomey-Calavi, University of Abomey-Calavi, Benin, 49p.

Bratcher CL, Johnson DD, Littell RC, Gwartney BL. 2005. The effects of quality grade, aging, and location within muscle on Warner-Bratzler shear force in beef muscles of locomotion. Meat Science 70, 279–284.

Brown SN, Nute GR, Baker A, Hughes SI, Warriss PD. 2008. Aspects of meat and eating quality of broiler chickens reared under standard, maize-fed,  free-range  or  organic  systems.  British Poultry Science 49 (2), 118-124.

Cason JA, Lyon CE, Dickens JA. 2002. Tenderization of hot-boned broiler breast meat by clamping during chilling. Poultry Science 81, 21–125.

Castellini C, Mugnai C, Dal Bosco A. 2002a. Effect of organic production system on broiler carcass and meat quality. Meat Science 60, 219-225.

Castellini C, Mugnai C, Dal Bosco A. 2002b. Meat quality of three chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system. Italian Journal of Food Science 14, 401-412.

Chuaynukool K, Wattanachant S, Siripongvutikorn S. 2007. Chemical and properties of raw and cooked spent hen, broiler and Thai indigenous chicken muscles in mixed herbs acidified soup (Tom Yum). Journal of Food Technology 5, 180-186.

Chueachuaychoo A, Wattanachant S, Benjakul S. 2011. Quality characteristics of raw and cooked spent hen Pectoralis major muscles during chilled storage: Effect of salt and phosphate. International Food Research Journal 18, 593-605.

CountryStat/Benin. 2012. Base de données statistiques, consultée à l’adresse, http://countrystat.org/ben ou http://www.fao.org/economic/ess/countrystat/en/.

Debut, M, Berri C, Baéza E, Sellier N, Arnould C, Guémené D, Jehl N, Boutten B, Jego Y, Beaumont C, Le Bihan-Duval E. 2003. Variation of chicken technological meat quality in relation to genotype and preslaughter stress conditions. Poultry Science 82, 1829–1838.

Dingboom EG, Weijs WA. 2004. The effect of growth and exercise on muscle characteristics in relation to meat quality. In: M. F. W. te Pas, M. E. Everts, and H. P. Haagsman, ed. Muscle Development of Livestock Animals: Physiology, Genetics, and Meat Quality. CABI Publ., Cambridge, MA, 83–102.

Dunn AA, Kilpatrick DJ, Gault NFS. 1993. Influence of ultimate pH, sarcomere length and cooking loss on the textural variability of cooked M. Pectoralis Major from free range and standard broilers. British Poultry Science 34, 663-675.

El Rammouz R, Berri C, Le Bihan-Duval E, Babilé R, Fernandez X. 2004. Breed differences in the biochemical determinism of ultimate pH in breast muscles of broiler chickens – A key role of AMP deaminase? Poutry Science 83 (8), 1445-1451.

Fanatico AC, Cavitt LC, Pillai PB, Emmert JL,Owens CM. 2005. Evaluation of Slower-Growing Broiler Genotypes Grown with and Without Outdoor Access: Meat Quality. Poultry Science 84, 1785–1790.

Fanatico AC, Pillai PB, Emmert JL, Gbur EE, Meullenet JF, Owens CM. 2007a. Sensory attributes of slow- and fast-growing chicken genotypes raised indoors or with outdoor access. Poultry Science 86, 2441–2449.

FAO. 2002. Initiative, Elevage, Pauvreté et Croissance. Volume I, II et III.

FAO. 2011. Family poultry communications. International Network for Family Poultry Development 20 (2), 57p, www.fao.org/ag/againfo/themes/en/infpd/home.html.

Fernandez  X,  Sante  V,  Baeza  E,  LeBihan- Duval E, Berri C, Re´mignon H, Babile R, Le Pottier G, Astruc T. 2002. Effects of the rate of muscle  post  mortem  pH  fall  on  the  technological quality of turkey meat. British Poultry Science 43, 245–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00071660120121463

Fletcher DL. 1999. Broiler breast meat color variation, pH, and texture. Poultry Science 78, 1323– 1327.

Fletcher DL. 2002. Poultry meat quality. World’s Poultry Science 58, 131-145.

Franco D, Rois D, Vázquez JA, Purriños L, González  R,  Lorenzo  JM.  2011.  Breed  effect between Mos rooster (Galician indigenous breed) and Sasso T-44 line and finishing feed effect of commercial fodder or corn. Poultry Science 91, 487–498, http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2011-01546

Grashorn MA, Serini C. 2006. Quality of chicken meat from conventional and organic poultry. XII European Poultry Conference, Verona, 10-14 September, 268p.

Husak RL, SebranekJG, Bregendahl K. 2008. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition and relative value. Poultry Science 87, 2367-2376.

Honikel KO. 1987. How to measure the water-holding capacity of meat? Recommendation of a standardized method. In: Evaluation and Control of Meat Quality in Pigs, 129–142p.

Honikel KO. 1998. Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Science 49, 447–457.

Houessionon FJB. 2011. Typologie des élevages de poulets locaux de l’espèce Gallus gallus en aviculture familiale au Bénin, Mémoire de Master en Production et Santé Animales, Ecole Polytechnique d’Abomey-Calavi, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin, 98p.

Hunt RWG. 1991. Measuring color. 2nd ed. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, UK, 313 pp.

INSAE. 2010. Institut National de Statistique et l’Analyse Economique. Rapport annuel d’activités. Cotonou, Bénin, 360p.

Janisch S, Krischek C, Wicke M. 2011. Color values and other meat quality characteristics of breast muscles collected from 3 broiler genetic lines slaughtered at 2 ages. Poultry Science 90, 1774–1781, doi: 10.3382/ps. 2010-01073.

Jaturasitha S, Kayan A, Michael W. 2008a. Carcass and meat characteristics of male chickens between Thai indigenous compared with improved layer breeds and their crossbred. Arch. Tierz., Dummerstorf 51 (3), 283-294.

Jaturasitha S, Khiaosaard R, Pongpaew A, Leowtharakul A, Saitong S, Apichatsarangkul T, Leaungwunta V. 2004. Carcass and indirect meat quality of native and Kai Baan Thai chickens with different sex and slaughter weight. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference. Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand, 116-126.

Jaturasitha S, Srikanchai T, Kreuzer M, Wicke M. 2008b. Differences in carcass and meat characteristics between chicken indigenous to Northern Thailand (Black boned and Thai native) and improved extensive breeds (Bresse and Rhode Island Red). Poultry Science 87, 160-169, doi:10.3382/ps.2006-00398.

Leusink G, Rempel H, Skura B, Berkyto M, White W, Yang Y, Rhee YJ, Xuan SY, Chiu S, Silversides F, Fitzpatrick S, Diarra MS. 2010. Growth performance, meat quality, and gut microflora of broiler chickens fed with cranberry extract. Poultry Science 89, 1514–1523. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2009-00364

Lonergan SM, Deeb N, Fedlet CA,Lamont SJ. 2003. Breast meat quality and composition in unique chicken populations. Poultry Science 82, 1990–1994.

Mankor A. 2009. Evolution du secteur de l’élevage Ouest africain, Consommation urbaine de viande en Afrique de l’Ouest : l’exemple de Dakar. Grain de Sel 46-47, 16-17.

Mikulski D, Celej J, Jankowski J, Majewska T,Mikulska M. 2011. Growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of slower-growing and fast-growing chickens raised with and without outdoor access.  Asian-Aust.  Journal  of  Animal  Science  24 (10), 1407 – 1416. http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.11038

Mlozi RMS, Kakengi VAM, Minga MU, Mtambo MA, Olsen EJ. 2003. Marketing of free-range local chickens in Morogoro and Kilosa urban markets, Tanzania. Livestock Research for Rural Development 15 (2), 10p. Accessed on 28/12/11 at:

Mourão JL, Pinheiro VM, Prates JAM, Bessa RJB, Ferreira LMA, Fontes CMGA, Ponte PIP. 2008. Effect of dietary dehydrated pasture and citrus pulp on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Poultry Science 87, 733–743, http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00411

Oluwatosin O, Olawoyin E, Agiang A, De Neji C, Iso E. 2007. Nutritional evaluation of the thigh and breast muscles of four cockerel strains. African Journal of Animal and Biomedical Sciences 2 (2), 26-31.

Oluyemi JA, Roberts FA. 2000. Poultry production in warm wet climates. 2nd edition, Ibadan, Spectrum book limited 2 (2), 57-62.

Połtowicz K, Doktor J. 2011. Effect of free-range raising on performance, carcass attributes and meat quality of broiler chickens. Animal Science Papers and Reports 29 (2), 139-149.

Ponte PIP, Rosado CMC, Crespo JP, Crespo DG, Mourao MA, Chaveiro-Soares MA, Bras JLA, Mendes LT,Gama AM, Prates LMA, Ferreira Fontes CMGA. 2008a. Pasture intake improves the performance and meat sensory attribute of free range broilers. Poultry Science 87, 71-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps.2007-00148

Raach-Moujahed A, Haddad B, Moujahed N, Bouallegue M. 2011. Evaluation of Growth Performances and Meat Quality of Tunisian Local Poultry Raised in Outdoor Access. International Journal of Poultry Science 10 (7), 552-559.

Roy IO, Miyachi H, Nishimura S, Tabata S, Iwamoto H. 2007. Effects of nutritional level and carcass weight on the different anatomical body parts and muscle weights of male broilers Bimol Chandra. Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812–8581, Japan, 52 (1), 43–48.

Santos AL, Sakomura NK, Freitas ER, Fortes CMS, Carrilho ENVM. 2005. Comparison of free range broiler chicken strains raised in confined or semi-confined systems. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 7, 85–92.

SAS. 2006. SAS/STAT User’s guide, vers, 6, 4th ed, Cary, NC, USA, SAS Inst.

Tougan PU, Youssao AKI, Dahouda M, Salifou CFA, Ahounou GS, Kpodekon M, Mensah GA, Kossou DN, Amenou C, Kogbeto C, Thewis A. 2013. Variability of carcass traits of local poultry populations of Gallus gallus specie of Benin by genetic type, breeding mode and slaughter age. International Journal of Poultry Science, (submitted).

Venturini AC, Cavenaghi AD, Castillo CJC, Quiñones EM. 2011. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content. Ciência e Tecnologiade Alimentos Campinas 31(3), 629-634.

Wang KH, Shi SR, Dou TC, Sun HJ. 2009. Effect of a free-raising system on growth performance, carcass yield, and meat quality of slow-growing chicken. Poultry Science 88, 2219-2223.

Wattanachant C, Songsang A, Wattanasit S, Adulyatham P, Wattanachant S. 2004. Carcass quality, chemical composition, physical properties and textural characteristics of meat from naked-neck chicken and common Thai indigenous chicken. Research report RDG 4520022, Prince of Songkla University. Songkhla, Thailand, 158p.

Wattanachant S. 2008. Factors affecting the quality characteristics of Thai indigenous chicken meat. Suranaree Journal of Science and Technology 15(4), 317-322.

Wattanachant S, Wattanachant C. 2007. Chemical composition, properties and microstructure of Thai indigenous chicken muscles as influenced by age and rearing systems. Research report, Prince of Songkla University. Songkhla, Thailand, 77p.

Wołoszyn J, Książkiewicz J, Skrabka-Błotnicka T, Haraf G, Biernat J, Kisiel T. 2006. Comparison of amino acids and fatty acid composition of duck breast muscles from five flocks. Archiv Tierzucht 49, 194-204.

Youssao AKI, Assogba NM, Alkoiret TI, Dahouda M, Idrissou N-D, Kayang BB, Yapi-Gnaoré V, Assogba HM, Houinsou AS, Ahounou S, Tougan UP, Rognon X, Tixier-Boichard M. 2012. Comparison of growth performances, carcass characteristics and sensory characters of Benin indigenous chickens and Label Rouge (T55×SA51). African Journal of Biotechnology 11(89), 15569-15579. http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/AJB11.1747

Youssao AKI, Senou M, Dahouda M, Kpodekon TM, Djenontin J, Idrissou N-D, Bonou AG, Tougan PU, Assogba HM, Bankole E, Rognon X, Tixier-Boichard M. 2009. Genetic improvement of local chickens by crossing with the Label Rouge (T55XSA51): growth performances and heterosis effects. International Journal of Poultry Science 8 (6), 536-544.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background