Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Effect of salt stress on plant growth and physiological parameters of common glasswort (Salicornia europaea)

Research Paper | February 1, 2016

| Download 6

Ahmed Mohamed Algharib, Nesrin Örçen, Gholam Reza Nazarian

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.8( 2), 218-227, February 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/8.2.218-227


IJB 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Salinity is one of the most serious environmental problems influencing crop growth Salicornia spp. is one of the most salt tolerant plants. The salinity-growth response curve for S. europaea was evaluated in a hydroponic study in the growth chamber of the field crops department, faculty of agriculture, Ege University, Turkey through April to September 2014. The main objective was to determine the effects of salt stress on S. europaea. The factors were salinity stress (0,100, 200,300,400 and 500 mM NaCl in the root medium).The experimental design was a factorial experiment in the base of randomized plot design with three replications. The results revealed that S. europaea tolerated salinity up to 500 mM NaCl; however, the optimum growth was at 200mM NaCl in the root medium. At 100 mM NaCl S. europaea recorded the highest fresh weight per plant (124.33 g/plant). However, at 200 mM NaCl Salicornia showed the highest shoots length (38cm), the tallest root (45cm), and the highest number of lateral branches (61.67). The treatments 100 and 200 mM NaCl recorded the highest stem diameter (2.24mm), and the tallest node (11mm). The superoxidismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities, protein and proline (PRO)contents were increased as a result of salinity stress, where 500 mM NaCl recorded the maximum values: 29.21 µ mol min-1 mg-1 protein, 60.61 U mg-1 protein, 0.14%, and 1.27 µmoles/g FW respectively. The catalase (CAT) activity was significantly increased at 200 mM NaCl, but at higher levels of NaCl, i.e., 300, 400 and 500 mM, CAT activity significantly decreased in comparison with control plants. Based on the data obtained, it is clear that the halophytic characteristics of Salicornia europaea plants as evidenced by the positive effect of moderate salinities on plant growth.


Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Effect of salt stress on plant growth and physiological parameters of common glasswort (Salicornia europaea)

Aghaleh M, Niknam VA, Ebrahimzadeh HA, Razavi KB. 2009. Salt stress effects on growth, pigments, proteins and lipid peroxidation in Salicornia persica and S. europaea. Biologia Plantarum 53(2), 243–248.

Aghaleh M, Niknam VA, Ebrahimzadeh HA, Razavi KB. 2011. Effect of salt stress on physiological andantioxidative responses in two species of Salicornia S. persica and S. europaea. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 33(4), 1261-1270.

Anwar F, Bhanger MI, Nasir MK, Ismail S. 2002. Analytical characterization of Salicornia bigelovii seed oil cultivated in Pakistan. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50(15), 4210-4214.

Ashour N, Serag MS, Abd El-Haleem AK, Mandour S, Mekki BB, Arafat SM. 2002. Use of the killar grass (Leptochlo afusca L.) Kunth. In saline agriculture in arid lands of Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agronomy 24, 63-78.

Ayala F, O’Leary JW. 1995. Growth and physiology of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. at suboptimal salinity. International Journal of Plant Sciences 156, 197–205.

Bashan Y, Moreno M, Troyo E. 2000. Growth promotion of the seawater-irrigated oilseed halophyte Salicornia bigelovii inoculated with mangrove rhizosphere bacteria and halotolerant Azospirillum spp. Biology and Fertility of Soils Journal 32, 265-272.

Bates LS, Waklren RP, Teare ID. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline water stress studies. Plant Soil 39, 205-207.

Beauchamp CO, Fridovich I. 1971. Superoxide dismutase: improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Analytical Biochemistry 44, 276-287.

Bergmeyer N. 1970. Methoden der enzymatischen Analyse, vol.1,Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 636–647.

Bradford MM. 1976. Rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding, Analytical Biochemistry 72, 248–254.

Cao J, Lv XY, Chen L, Xing JJ, Lan HY. 2015. Effects  of  salinity  on  the  growth,  physiology  and relevant gene expression of an annual halophyte grown from heteromorphic seeds. AoB PLANTS 7, plv112; http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aobpla/plv112.

Clark A. 1994. Samphire: From sea to shining seed. Aramco World 45, 2–9.

Demiral T, Turkan I. 2004. Does exogenous glycinbetaine affect antioxidative system of rice seedlings under NaCl treatment? Journal of Plant Physiology 161, 1089–1100.

Duncan DB. 1965. Multiple Range and Multiple F. Test. Biometrics 11, 1-42.

Edreva A, Cholakova N. 1975. Fiziol. Rast (Mosc.) 22, 204-207.

Fridivich I. 1989. Superoxide dismutases: An adaptation to a paramagnetic gas, The Journal of Biological Chemistry 264, 7761-7764.

Flowers TJ, Colmer TD. 2008. Salinity tolerance in halophytes. New Phytologist 179, 945-963.

Ghaffari SM, Saydrasi L, Ebrahimzadeh H, Akhani H. 2006. Chromosome Numbers and Karyotype Analyses of Species of Subfamily Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae) From Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany 12(2), 128-135.

Glenn EP, Brown JJ, O’Leary JW. 1998. Irrigating crops with seawater. Scientific American 279, 76-81.

Glenn EP, Oleary JW, Watson MC, Thompson TL, Kuehl RO. 1991. Salicornia bigelovii Torr.:An Oilseed Halophyte for Seawater Irrigation. Science 251(4997), 1065-1067.

Grattan   SR, Benes    SE, Peters   DW, Diaz    F. 2008. Feasibility of irrigating pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii Torr) with hyper-saline drainage water. Journal of Environmental Quality 37(5), 149-156.

Herzog V, Fahimi H. 1973. Determination of the activity of peroxidase, Analytical Biochemistry 55, 554–562.

Jouyban Z. 2012. The Effects of Salt stress on plant growth. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied 2(1), 7-10.

Katschnig D, Broekman R, Rozema J. 2012. Salt tolerance in the halophyte Salicornia dolichostachya Moss: growth, morphology and physiology. Environmental and Experimental Botany http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2012.04.002

Khan MA, Gul B, Weber DJ. 2001. Effect of salinity on the growth and ion content of Salicornia rubra. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32(17&18), 2965–2977.

Khan MA, ad Duke NC. 2001. Halophytes- A resource for the future. Wetland Ecology and Management 6, 455-456.

Khan MA, Weber DJ. 2006. Ecophysiology of High Salinity Tolerant Plants. Springer, Netherlands.

Khan MN, Siddiqui MH, Mohammad F, Naeem M, Khan MMA. 2010. Calcium chloride and gibberellic acid protect linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) from NaCl stress by inducing anti-oxidative defense system and osmo-protectant accumulation. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 32, 121– 132.

Kong Y, Zheng Y. 2014. Potential of Producing Salicornia bigelovii hydroponically as a Vegetable at Moderate NaCl Salinity. HortScience 49(9), 1154– 1157.

Lopez CML, Takahashi H, Yamazaki S. 2002. Plant-water relations of kidney bean plants treated with NaCl and foliar applied glycinebetaine. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 188, 73-80.

Lu D, Zhang M, Wang S, Cai J, Zhou X, Zhu C. 2010. Nutritional characterization and changes in quality of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. during storage. Food Science and Technology 43, 519–524.

Macke AJ, Ungar IA. 1971. The effects of salinity on germination and early growth of Puccinellia nuttalliana. Canadian Journal of Botany 49, 515– 520.

Milan S, Stanislav Z. 2002. Vegetable lipids as components of functional foods. Biomedical Papers 146(2), 3–10.

Morita S, Tasake M, Fujisawa H, Ushimaru T, Tsuji H. 1994. A cDNA clone encoding a rice catalase isozyme, Plant Physiology 105, 1015-1016.

Munns R. 2002. Comparative physiology of salt and water stress. Plant Cell and Environment 25, 239-250.

Nanjo T, Kobayashi M, Yoshida Y, Kakubari Y, Yamaguchi- Shinozaki K, Shinozaki K. 1999. Antisense suppression of proline degradation improves tolerance to freezing and salinity in Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Letters 461, 205–210.

Parks GE, Dietrich MA, Schumaker KS. 2002. Increased vacuolar Na+/H+ exchange activity in Salicornia bigelovii Torr. in response to NaCl. Journal of Experimental Botany 53(371), 1055-1065.

Park KW, An JY, Lee HJ, Son D, Sohn YG, Kim C, Lee JJ. 2013. The growth and accumulation of osmotic solutes of the halophyte common glasswort (Salicornia europaea) under salinity conditions. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 51, 103–108.

Rozema J, Schat H. 2013. Salt tolerance of halophytes, research questions reviewed in the perspective of saline agriculture. Environmental and Experimental Botany 92, 83–95.

Rueda-Puente EO, Prabhaharan R, Murillo-Amador B, Ruiz-Espinoza F, Puente M, Valdez-Cepeda RD. 2013. Ameliorative effects of salt resistance on physiological parameters in the halophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr. with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, African Journal of Biotechnology 12(34), 5278-5284.

Shabala S, Mackay A. 2011. Ion Transport in Halophytes, Plant Responses to Drought and Salinity Stress: Developments in a Post-Genomic Era. Academic Press Ltd-Elsevier Science Ltd, London, pp 151-199.

Siddiqui MH, Mohammad F, Khan MN. 2009. Morphological and physio–biochemical characterization of Brassica juncea L. Czern. &Coss. genotypes under salt stress. Journal Plant Interact 4, 67–80.

Solomon A, Beer S, Waisel Y, Jones GP, Poleg LG. 1994. Effect of NaCl on the carboxylating activities of Rubisco from Tamarix jordanis in the presence and absence of proline related compatible solutes. Physiologia Plantarum 90, 189–204.

Swingle RS, Glenn EP, Squires V. 1996. Growth performance of lambs fed mixed diets containing halophyte ingredients. Animal Feed Science and Technology 63, 137-148.

Tester M, Davenport R. 2003. Na+ tolerant and Na+ transport in higher plants. Annals of Botany 91, 503-527.

Ungar IA. 1978. The effects of salinity and hormonal treatments on growth and ion uptake of Salicornia europaea, Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de France. Actualites 124(95), 46-56.

Van  Resenburg  L,  Kruger  GHJ,  Kruger  H. 1993. Proline accumulation as drought tolerance selection criterion: Its relationship to membrane integrity and chloroplast ultra-structure in Nicotiana tabacum L. Journal of Plant Physiology 141, 188– 194.

Ventura Y, Sagi M. 2013. Halophyte crop cultivation: The case for Salicornia and Sarcocornia. Environmental and Experimental Botany 92, 144– 153.

Yamazaki J, Ohashi A, Hashimoto Y, Negishi E, Kumagai S, Kubo T, Oikawa T, Maruta E, Kamimura Y. 2003. Effects of high light and low temperature during harsh winter on needle photodamage of Abies mariesii growing at the forest limit on Mt. Norikura in Central Japan, Plant Science, 165, 257-264.