Int. J. Biosci.3(12), 193-200, December 2013
The objective of this study was to explore the effects of ultrasound probe diameter, reactor diameter, and juice level in the reactor upon effectiveness of ultrasound waves on decontamination of sour cherry juice. Results showed that the effects of probe diameter, reactor diameter and reactor height were significant (P<0.01). In addition, by increasing the probe diameter from 30 to 40 mm no significant effect was seen in reactors with 65 and 75 mm diameter; however, for 85 mm diameter reactor, the effect of ultrasound waves diminished and, as a result, the total microbial count increased. Increasing the probe diameter from 20 to 30 and then 40 mm, on the average decreased the total microbial count by 15% and 5%, respectively. This effect was obvious at 85 mm diameter, and any increase in height steepened the slope of total microbial count. Finally, using the response surface method (RSM), optimum values were obtained for reactor diameter, reactor height, and probe diameter.
Alvarez-Lo´pez JA, Jime´nez-Munguia MT, Palou E, Lo´pez-Malo A. 2003. Ultrasound and Antimicrobial Agent Effects on Grapefruit Juice, Session 92 C (Non thermal Processing: General), 18-23, IFT Annual Meeting, Chicago, USA.
Anjum MF, Tasadduq I, Al-Sultan K. 1997. Response Surface Methodology: A neural network approach. European Journal of operational Research, 101(1), 65- 73.
Arnsson K, Lindgren M, Johansson BR, Ronner U. 2001. Inactivation of Microorganisms using Pulsed Electric Fields: The Influence of Process Parameters on Escherichia Coli, Listeria innocua, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies 2, 41- 54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1466-8564(01)00021-2
Bentitez FA. 2004. Effects of the use of Ultrasonic Waves on Biodiesel Production in Alkaline Transesterification of Bleached Tallow and Vegetable Oils: Cavitation Model. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, University of Puerto Rico.
Cheeke J, David N. 2002. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves. CRC Press LLC.
Chen C, Tseng CW. 1996. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on the Temperature Dependence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Process Biochemistry., 32(4), 337- 343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(96)00096-9
Evrendilek GA, Tok FM, Soylu EM, Soylu S. 2008. Inactivation of penicillum expansum in Sour Cherry Juice, Peach and Apricot Nectars by Pulsed Electric Fields, Food Microbiology 25, 662- 667.
Halim SFA, Kamaruddin AH, Fernando WJN. 2009. Continuous Biosynthesis of Biodiesel From Waste Cooking Palm Oil in a Packed Bed Reactor:Optimization using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Mass Transfer Studies. Bioresource Technology 100, 710- 716. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.07.031
Kuldiloke J. 2002. Effect of Ultrasound, Temperature and Pressure Treatments on Enzyme Activity and Quality Indicators of Fruit and Vegetable Juices. MSc Thesis, Institute of Food Technology, Food Biotechnology and Process Technology, the Technical University of Berlin, Germany.
Kuldiloke J, Eshtiaghi MN. 2008. Application of Non-Thermal Processing for Preservation of Orange Juice. KMITL Science and Technology 8(2), 64- 74.
Mcculloch E. 2008. Experimental and Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Cutting of Food. Doctorial thesis, university of Glasgow.
Mertens B, Knorr D. 1992. Developments of Nonthermal Processes for Food Preservation. Food Technology 46, 125- 133.
Toepfel S, Heinz V, Knorr D. 2007. High Intensity Pulsed Electric Fields Applied for Food Preservation. Chemical Engineering and Processing., 46, 537- 546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2006.07.011
Valero M, Recrosio N, Saura D, Munoz N, Marti N, Lizama V. 2007. Effect of Ultrasonic Treatments in Orange Juice Processing. Journal of Food Engineering 80, 509-516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2006.06.009
Vichare NP, Gogate PR, Dindore VY, Pandit AB. 2001. Mixing Time Analysis of a Sonochemical Reactor. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 8, 23- 33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4177(99)00046-2