Effects of ionic and heavy metal stress on secondary metabolites accumulation in calli of Ajuga Bracteosa L.

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Research Paper 03/06/2024
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Effects of ionic and heavy metal stress on secondary metabolites accumulation in calli of Ajuga Bracteosa L.

Roby Gul, Gul-Lalay, Safdar Hussain Shah, Saad Hussain Shah, Fazal Umer
Int. J. Biosci.24( 6), 1-12, June 2024.
Certificate: IJB 2024 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Ajuga bracteosa L, a medicinal plant that contains numerous phytochemicals, is becoming endangered worldwide due to the lack of knowledge and overexploitation. Research efforts are necessary for its conservation, preservation, and secondary metabolite production. In this study, an attempt was made to develop calli from this plant and evaluate the effects of abiotic stresses, i.e., NaCl and Cd(NO3)2, on the relative growth rate, total phenolic contents (TPC), proline contents, sugar contents, total flavonoid contents (TFC), alpha-amino acids, and antioxidant activity of A. bracteosa at the cellular (calli) level. NaCl and Cd (NO3)2 reduced the biomass production in terms of relative growth rate (RGR) but enhanced metabolite accumulation. The highest total phenolic contents (40µg/g), proline contents (0.9µg/g), total sugar contents (90mM/g), and total flavonoid contents (5mg/g) were recorded at 150mM NaCl, while the maximum total antioxidant activity (900µM/g) was measured at 50mM NaCl. On the other hand, the lowest amino acid contents (5µM), phenolic contents (27µg), and proline contents (0.5µg) were found at 50mM NaCl. Similarly, the highest level of Cd(NO3)2 stress (8mM) resulted in insignificantly increased production of phenolics (22µg/g), proline (0.9µg/g), total sugars (92mM), alpha-amino acids (7µM), and total antioxidant activity (850µM). This study not only provides an ex-situ conservation strategy for a highly exploited medicinal herb but can also be used as a commercial production methodology for valuable secondary metabolites.

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