International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Anti-anemic effect of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves powder on iron deficient rats

By: Marwa Waheed, Zarina Mushtaq, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Kamran Khan, Nazir Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal Hussain

Key Words: Thymus vulgaris, Mineral, Iron, Hematology, Iron deficiency anemia

Int. J. Biosci. 15(2), 503-512, August 2019.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.2.503-512

Certification: ijb 2019 0167 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Herbal plants and their active ingredients are becoming more important for natural and safe use as compared to synthetic medications. For this purpose, the pharmacological impact of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) leaves powder to mitigate iron deficiency anemia was observed. Thyme leaves powder was subjected to nutritional analysis. To explore the anti-anemic effect, thyme leaves powder (G1:10 g, G2: 20 g and G3: 30g) was fed to animal subjects. Forty female Sprague Dawley rats were allocated into four groups and each group fed for 6 weeks. The blood samples for serum biochemical parameters, hematological indices as well as liver and kidney function tests were analyzed at intervals of 0, 21 and 42 days. Results revealed that dried thyme leaves powder had high contents of proteins (20.43%), fiber (13.68%), nitrogen free extract (44.05%) as well as mineral contents. Feed intake and body weight gain were increased significantly (p<0.05) in experimental groups. The highest feed intake and body weight gain was observed in G3 i.e. (22.35 ± 0.86 g per rat per day diet) and (112.97 ± 1.28 to 169.91 ± 1.12 g per rat), respectively. Similarly, G3 showed more increase in serum biochemical profile and hematological indices during efficacy study as compared to G1 and G2. Liver and kidney functioning values showed decreasing trend throughout the study period of 42 days. The results of present study conclude that the strong nutritional composition of thyme leaves powder has a safe and therapeutic role against the treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

| Views 6 |

Anti-anemic effect of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves powder on iron deficient rats

AACC. 2000. Approved Methods of American Association of Cereal Chemists, the American Association of Cereal Chemistry. Inc., St. Paul, MN.

Abbaspour N, Hurrell R, Kelishadi R. 2014. Review on iron and its importance for human health. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 19, 164-174.

Al-Buhairan AM, Oluboyede OA. 2001. Determination of serum iron, total iron-binding capacity and serum ferritin in healthy Saudi adults. Annals of Saudi Medicine 21, 100-103.

Al-Haj M, Kazzam E, Nagelkerke NJ, Nyberg F, Nichollsmg, Adem A. 2011. Effect of dehydration in the presence and absence of the angiotensin receptor blocker losartan on blood constituents in the camel. Journal of Medical Sciences 4, 73-78.

AOAC. 2006. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 18th Ed. AOAC Press, Arlington, VA, USA.

Arthur FK, Larbie C, Woode E, Terlabi EO. 2012. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Annona muricata (Linn.) leaf against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced liver damage. Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals 3, 25-30.

Bailey RL, West JKP, Black RE. 2015. The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 2, 22-33.

Basuny AM, Gaafar AM, Arafat SM. 2009. Tomato lycopene is a natural antioxidant and can alleviate hypercholesterolemia. African Journal of Biotechnology 8, 6627-6633.

Chaturvedi R, Chattopadhyay P, Banerjee S, Bhattacharjee CR, Raul P, Borah K, Singh L, Veer V. 2014. Iron-rich drinking water and ascorbic acid supplementation improved hemolytic anemia in experimental Wistar rats. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 2014, 1-6.

Dauqan EMA, Abdullah A. 2017. Medicinal and functional values of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) herb. Journal of Applied Biology and Biotechnology 5, 17-22.

Ebuehi OAT, Mbara KC. 2011. Biochemical studies of iron fortified gari fed to phenyl hydrazine-induced anaemic rats. American Journal of Food Technology 6, 472-482.

El-Din Yossef HE. 2010. Effect of calcium and phosphorus on non-haeme iron absorption and haematogenic characteristics in rats. Food and Nutrition Sciences 1, 13-18.

El-Sheikh NM. 2008. The protective effect of soybean and thyme on iron deficiency anemia in rats. The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine 33, 510- 520.

Gumus R, Ercan N, Imik H. 2017. The effect of thyme essential oil (Thymus vulgaris) added to quail diets on performance, some blood parameters, and the antioxidative metabolism of the serum and liver tissues. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science 19, 297-304.

Hamzawy MA, El-Denshary ESM, Hassan NS, Manaa F, Abdel-Wahhab MA. 2012. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Thymus vulgaris extract in rats during alfatoxicosis. Global Journal of Pharmacology 6, 106-117.

Khalil E, Esoh R, Rababah T, Almajwal AM, Alu’datt MH. 2012. Minerals, proximate composition and their correlations of medicinal plants from Jordan. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6, 5757-5762.

Kumari B, Kumar P, Keshari JR, Kumar A, Pankaj S, Chaudhary RK. 2017. Serum BUN and creatinine estimation in patients of overt hypothyroidism: a case control study. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 5, 3990-3993.

McCarthy RC, Kosman DJ. 2015. Iron transport across the blood-brain barrier; Development, neurovascular regulation and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 72, 709-727.

Naghdi Badi H, Abdollahi M, Mehrafarin A, Ghorbanpour M, Tolyat M, Qaderi A, Ghiaci Yekta M. 2017. An overview on two valuable natural and bioactive compounds, thymol and carvacrol, in medicinal plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants 16, 1-32.

Orhan IE. 2014. Pharmacognosy: Science of natural products in drug discovery. Bioimpacts 4, 109-110.

Pasricha SR. 2012. Should we screen for iron deficiency anemia? A review of the evidence and recent recommendations. Pathology 44, 139-147.

Rehman A, Adnan M. 2018. Nutritional potential of Pakistani medicinal plants and their contribution to human health in times of climate change and food insecurity. Pakistan Journal of Botany 50, 287-300.

Saleh N, Allam T, El-latif AA, Ghazy E. 2014. The effects of dietary supplementation of different levels of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oils on performance, hematological, biochemical and immunological parameters of broiler chickens. Global Veterinary 12, 736-744.

Sera K, Nishimura Y, Hayashi C, Nishio H. 2011. Early diagnosis of health damage in arc welders based on their serum ferritin level. Open Journal of Internal Medicine 1, 77-79.

Singh A, Bains K, Kaur H. 2016. Relationship of dietary factors with dialyzable iron and in vitro iron bioavailability in the meals of farm women. Journal of Food Science and Technology 53, 2001-2008.

Sotelo A, Gonzalez-Osnaya L, Sanchez-Chinchillas A, Trejo A. 2010. Role of oxalate, phytate, tannins and cooking on iron bioavailability from foods commonly consumed in Mexico. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 61, 29-39.

Sultana T, DeVita MV, Michelis MF. 2016. Oral vitamin C supplementation reduces erythropoietin requirement in hemodialysis patients with functional iron deficiency. International Urology and Nephrology 48, 1519-1524.

Tomescu A, Rus C, Pop G, Alexa E, Radulov I, Imbrea M, Negrea M. 2015. Researches regarding proximate and selected elements composition of some medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Agronomic Series of Science and Research 58, 175-180.

Wallace DF. 2016. The regulation of iron absorption and homeostasis. Clinical Biochemist Reviews 37, 51-62.

Weinborn V, Pizarro F, Olivares M, Brito A, Arredondo M, fLores S, Valenzuela C. 2015. The effect of plant proteins derived from cereals and legumes on heme iron absorption. Nutrients 7, 8977-8986.

Marwa Waheed, Zarina Mushtaq, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Kamran Khan, Nazir Ahmad, Muhammad Bilal Hussain.
Anti-anemic effect of Thymus vulgaris L. leaves powder on iron deficient rats.
Int. J. Biosci. 15(2), 503-512, August 2019.
https://innspub.net/ijb/anti-anemic-effect-thymus-vulgaris-l-leaves-powder-iron-deficient-rats/
Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update