Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Assay of Fruit, Leaf and Stem Extracts of Solanum nigrum L. in Different Solvent

Research Paper | December 1, 2016

| Download 2

Mubsher Mazher, Nafeesa Zahid Malik, Muhammad Riaz, Adil Hussain, Yasir Ali, Qum Qum Noshad

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.9( 6), 129-136, December 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/9.6.129-136


IJB 2016 [Generate Certificate]


Solanum nigrum L. (black nightshade) is a wild vegetable with numerous ethnomedicinal potentials. In this study phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of fruit, leaf and stem extracts of Solanum nigrum L. prepared in four solvents i.e., ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether and distilled water were inspected. Phytochemical examination showed the presence of significant constituents like, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids and flavonoids. Antibacterial activity was determined by zone of Inhibition using agar well diffusion method in contradiction of five bacterial strains viz. Basillus subtilis, Salmonella paratyphi, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Vibrio cholera. Zone of inhibition ranged from 8.5 mm to 33.0 mm where stem extracts in chloroform showed no detectable zone of inhibition against B. subtilis. Leaf and stem extracts also showed no detectable zone of inhibition against S. paratyphi. The MIC value measured using serial dilution method against bacterial strains ranged from 250μg/ml to 1000μg/ml. Fruit extracts in ethanol and chloroform both, showed greater zone of inhibition against V. cholera as compared to tetracycline. This investigation sanctions that the ethanol and chloroform extracts from fruit of Solanum nigrum L. possess potential antibacterial action.


Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Assay of Fruit, Leaf and Stem Extracts of Solanum nigrum L. in Different Solvent

Almazini MA, Hammed GA, Amani A. 2009. Antibacterial Activity of the Solasodine of S. nigrum Against Bacterial Isolates from the Wounds. Basrah journal of veterinary research 8(2), 137.

Alvarez M, Rodriguez J, Paniego N, Giulietti A. 1994. Solasodine Production in Transformed Organ Cultures of Solanum eleagnifolium. Biotechnology Letters 16, 393-396.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00245058

Baker JT, Borris RP, Carte B. 1995. Natural Products Drug Discovery and Development, New Perspectives on International Collaborations, Natural Products 58, 1325-1357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np50123a003

Baohung JI. 2002. Report of Scientific Working Group on Leprosy. TDR/SWG/02.

Gbadamosi, Afolayan. 2016. In vitro anti-radical activities of extracts of Solanum nigrum (L.) from South Africa. Journal of Applied Biosciences 98, 9240-9251. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jab.v98i1.1

Harborne JB. 1973. Methods of Plant Analysis. Phytochemical Methods, 1–32. http://doi:10.1007/978-94-009-5921-7_1

Hussain MA, Rahman K, Khan MQ. 2013. Antimicrobial Activities of Some Medicinal Plants of Nakyal District Kotli Azad Kashmir. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 2(1), 1‐8.

Indhumathi T, Mohandass S. 2014. Efficacy of Ethanolic extracts of Solanum incanum fruit extracts for its antimicrobial activity. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 3(6), 939-949.

Iwu MW, Duncan AR, Okunji CO. 1999. New Antimicrobials of Plant Origin. Janick J. Ed 6, 457-462. In: J. Janick (ed.), Perspectives on new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.

Jorgensen JH, Turnidge JD. 2007. Susceptibility Test Methods. Manual of Clinical Microbiology 9, 1152-1172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/9781555817381.ch71

Karmakar UK, Tarafder UK, Sadhu SK, Biswas NN, Shill MC. 2010. Biological investigations of dried fruit of Solanum nigrum Linn. Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 3(1), 38-45. http://doi:10.3329/sjps.v3i1.6796

Kingston C, Nisha BS, Kiruba S, Jeeva S. 2007. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Community in a Traditional Healthcare System. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11, 32-37.  http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/ebl/vol2007/iss1/7

Kiran KR, Rani M, Pal A. 2009. Reclaiming Degraded Land in India through the Cultivation of Medicinal Plants. Bot. Res. Int 2, 174-181.

Kokate CK. 1994. Practical Pharmacognosy. 4th edition, Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi, India, 124-125.

Manisha V, Neha S, Satish S. 2009. Antimicrobial Activity of Stem Bark Extracts of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. (Oleaceae). International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochem. Res. 1(1), 12-14.

Mary OE, Okiemen FE. 2004. Isolation of Morpholine hydrate crystals from Solanum nigrum. Supplementary of Chemical Society of Nigeria 74.

Melina G, Giuseppina N. 2012. Plants from Solanaceae family with possible anxiolytic effect reported on 19th century’s Brazilian medical journal Rev Brs Farmacogn. Braz J Pharmacogn (online journal, accessed 6th August, 21(4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102695X2011005000106

Mohan VR, Rajesh A, Athiperumalsami T,  Sutha S. 2008. Ethnomedicinal Plants of the Tirunelveli District, Tamil Nadu.  India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12, 79-95.

Ong HC. 2003. Medicinal Values of Solanacae Family. Pharmacol. Fac. Sci 92-93.

Perez C, Paul M, Bazerque P. 1990. Antibiotic assay by agar well diffusion method. Acta Biol. Med. Exp 15, 113-115.

Potawele SE, Sinha SD, Shroff KK. 2008. A Phytochemical Review of Solanum nigrum L. Pharmacol. Online 3, 140-163.

Prusti A, Mishra SR, Sahoo S, Mishra SK. 2008. Antibacterial Activity of Some Indian Medicinal Plants. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12, 227-230.

Rao PS, Navinchandra SR, Jayaveera KN. 2012. Medicinial values of Solanum nigrum L. European Journal of Experimental Biology 6, 2271.

Rotimi J, Ekperusi OA. 2012. Evaluation of antimicrobial potential of different extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum. Advances in Applied Science Research 6, 3540.

Salehi-Surmaghi MH, Aynehchi Y, Amin GH, Mahhmoodi Z. 1992. Survey of Iranian plants for saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins. IV, DARU 2, 1-11.

Sofowara A. 1993. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. Chichester John Wiley & Sons, New York. 97-145.

Sridhar TM, Josthna P, Naidu CV. 2011. In vitro Antibacterial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Solanum nigrum L. Journal of Experimental Sciences 2(8), 24-29.

World Health Organization. 2002. Traditional Medicine strategy 2002-2005.

Zubaida Y, Zabta KS, Mir AK. 2010. Phenetic Analysis of Medicinally Important Species of the Genus Solanum from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42(3), 1827-1833.