Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Quality characteristics of biscuits made from sorghum and defatted Macrotermes subhyalinus

Research Paper | January 1, 2013

| Download 7

Niaba Koffi P.V., Brou Kouakou, Gbassi K. Gildas, Amani Thierry, Kone N’golo, Gnakri Dago

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.3( 1), 58-69, January 2013


IJB 2013 [Generate Certificate]


Deffated Macrotermes subhyalinus Flour (DMF) was mixed with sorghum flour for the manufacturing of biscuits. Varying amounts of DMF were added for a maximum content of 25 % (w/w). The code for the biscuit control was BS0 and the code for the biscuit enriched for example with 25 % of DMF was BS25. Physical characteristics and nutritional and sensory qualities of biscuits were determined. Biscuit protein levels increase with incorporation of DMF. Values increased from 09.64% (BS0) to 21.66% (BS25). The fat content down from 21.51% (BS0) to 19.03% (BS25). The rate of carbohydrate down from 60.02% (BS0) to 47.35% (BS25). The ash and cellulose contents increase respectively from 2.26% (BS0) to 3.54% (BS25) and 2.63% (BS0) to 4.44% (BS25). The pH of biscuits increase with the incorporation of DMF but the difference was not significant (p<0.05). As for the total acidity, it decreases in the various types of biscuits, but this decrease was not significant (p<0.05). Total sugar content, reducing sugar content, non-reducing sugar content and starch decrease with the increase of DMF. Protein density increases significantly with incorporation of DMF, whereas lipid density decreases. The mineral composition increases in the same direction as the DMF incorporation. The diameter of biscuits increases gradually when the DMF content increased (47.90 mm to 48.57 mm from BS0 to BS25). The thickness of biscuits decreases significantly from 3.41 mm (BS0) to 2.23 mm (BS25). Mass, volume and specific volume of biscuits vary slightly despite the incorporation of DMF. Sensory analyzes show that the biscuits are acceptable up to 25% of DMF incorporation.


Copyright © 2013
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Quality characteristics of biscuits made from sorghum and defatted Macrotermes subhyalinus

Akhtar S, Anjum F, Rehman S, Sheikh M, Farzena K. 2008. Effect of fortification on the physico-chemical and microbiological stability of whole wheat flour. Food Chem. 112, 156-163.

Allotey J, Mpuchane S. 2003. Utilization of useful insects as a food source. Afr. J. of Food Agr. Nutr. and Dev. 3, 2.

AOAC. 1995. Official methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 16th ed. AOAC International Arlington, VA, p. 250.

AOAC. 1990. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis chemists, 15th ed (AOAC Arlington) Virginia, USA.

AOAC. 2000. Official methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical.

Atwater WO, Benedict FG. 1902. Experiments on the metabolism of matter and energy in the human body, 1898–1900. United States. Office of experiment stations. Bulletin No. 109. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Bakke A, Vickers Z. 2007. Consumer liking of refined and whole wheat breads. J. Food Sci. 72, S473-S480.

Baljeet SY, Ritika BY, Roshan LY. 2010. Studies on functional properties and incorporation of buckwheat flour for biscuit making International Food Research Journal 17, 1067-1076

Banjo AD, Lawal OA, Songonuga EA. 2006. The nutritional value of fourteen species of edible insects in southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 5(3). 298-301.

Banureka VD, Mahendran T. 2009. Formulation of wheat – soybean biscuits and their quality characteristics, Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension 12(2).

Bartolucci JC. 1997. Comportement rhéologique des pâtes et qualité des farines de blés tendres Français en panification et en biscuiterie. Thèse de doctorat. Ecole nationale supérieure des industries agricoles et alimentaires, Massy, France. p. 300.

Bernfeld P. 1955. Amylase α and β. Meyhod in enzymology. In: colowich, I.S.P and N.O. Kaplan.9th Edn, Academic Inc, New York,p. 154.

Bertrand G, Thomas P. 1910. Guide pour les manipulations de chimie biologie. Paris Dunod et Pinat, p. 468.

BIPEA . 1976.  Recueil des méthodes d’analyse des communautés européennes. Bureau Interprofessionnel d’Études Analytiques, Gennevilliers. France p. 140.

Bose D, Shams-Ud-Din M. 2010. The effect of chickpea (Cicer arietinim) husk on the properties of cracker biscuits. J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ. 8(1), 147–152, ISSN 1810-3030.

Dhingra S, Jood S. 2001. Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat breads supplemented with soybean and barley flour. Food Chem. 77, 479-488.

Dubois M, Gilles FK, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA, Smith F. 1956. Anal.Chem. 280, 350-356.

Eissa HA, Hussein AS, Mostafa BE. 2007. Rheological properties and quality evaluation of Egyptian balady bread and biscuits supplemented with flours of ungerminated and germinated legume seeds or mushroom. Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 57, 487– 496.

Ekpo KE, Onigbinde AO. 2007. Characterization of Lipids in Winged Reproductives of the Termite Macrotermis bellicosus. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 6(3), 247-251.

FAO/OMS. 2006. Codex Alimentarius : programme mixte FAO/OMS sur les normes alimentaires. Rapport de la vingt-septième session du comité du codex sur la nutrition et les aliments diététiques ou de régime. FAO/OMS. ALINORM 06/29/26. p. 105.

Favier JC, Ireland-ripert J, Toque C. 1995. Répertoire Général des Aliments – Table de composition. CNEVA-CIQUAL-INRA. Lavoisier Tec et Doc. Paris. p. 897.

Fustier P, Castaigne F, Turgeonb SL, Biliaderis CG. 2007. Semi-sweet biscuit making potential of soft wheat flour paten middle-cut and clear mill streams made with native and reconstituted flours. Journal of Cereal Science 46, 119-131.

Gomez M, Ronda F, Blanco, Caballero P, Apesteguía A. 2003. Effect of dietary fibre on dough rheology and bread quality. Eur. Food Res.Technol. 216, 51-56.

Hussain S, Anjum FM, Butt MS, Khan M I, Ashaghar A. 2006. Physical andSensory Attributes of Flaxseed Flour Supplemented Cookies. Turk Journal of Biol. 30, 87-92

Igrejas G, Martinant JP, Bouguenne A, Villain AC, Saulnier L, Popineau Y, Gerard BG. 2002. Genetical, Biochemical and Technological Parameters Associated with Biscuit Quality. I. Prediction Using Grain Hardness and Water Extractable Arabinoxylans. Journal of Cereal Science 36, 115-124.

Islam T, Chowdhury A, Islam M, Islam S. 2007. Standardization of Bread Preparation from Soy Flour. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(6), 15-20.

Iwe MO. 2007. Current Trends in Sensory Evaluation of Foods. Rejoint Communication Services, Uwani Enugu, Nigeria.

Kinyuru JN, Kenji GM, Njoroge MS. 2009. Process development, nutrition and sensory qualities of wheat buns enriched with edible termites (macrotermes subhylanus) from lake victoria region,Kenya. African journal of food Agriculture Nutrition and Development 9, 5374.

Kumar S, Rekha, Sinha LK. 2010. Evaluation of Quality Characteristics of Soy Based Millet Biscuits, Advances in Applied Science Research 1(3), 187-196.

Manoharr S, Rao PH. 2002. Interrelationship between rheological characteristics of dough and quality of biscuits; use of elastic recovery of dough to predict biscuit quality. Food Research International. 35, 807-813.

Meité A, Kouame KG, Amani NG, Kati-Coulibaly, Offoumou A. 2008. Caractéristiques physico-chimiques et sensorielles des pains fortifiés avec les farines de graines de citrullus lanatus. J. Sci. Pharm. Biol. 9, 32-43.

Mohsen MS, Fadel HM, Bekhit MA, Edris AE, Ahmed YS. 2009. Effect of substitution of soy protein isolate on aroma volatiles, chemical composition and sensory quality of wheat cookies. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 44, 1705–1712.

NIABA Koffi PV, Gbogouri Grodji A, BEUGRE Avit G, Ocho-Anin ATCHIBRI AL, GNAKRI Dago. 2011. Potentialités nutritionnelles du reproducteur ailé du termite Macrotermes subhyalinus capturé à Abobo-doumé, Côte d’Ivoire. J. App. Biosc. 40, 2706 – 2714.

Njintang YN, Mbofung CM, Balaam F, Kitissou P, Scher J. 2007. Effect of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) Flour Addition on The Functional and Alveographic Properties of Wheat Flour and Dough. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 88(2), 273-279.

Obiri-Danso K, Ellis WO, Simpon BK, Smith JP. 1997. Suitability of high lysine maize, obatanga for kenkey + production. Food Control 8, 125-129.

Odoemelam SA. 2005. Functional Properties of Raw and Heat Processed Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Flour. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 4(6), 366-370.

Ogunjobi MAK, Ogunwola SO. 2010. Physicochemical and sensory properties of cassava flour biscuits supplemented with cashew apple powder. Journal of food technology 8 (1), 24-29.

Olaoye OA, Onilude AA, Oladoye CO. 2007. Breadfruit Flour in BiscuitMaking: Effects on Product Quality. African Journal of Food Science 020-023.

Pareyt B. Delcour JA. 2008. The Role of Wheat Flour Constituents, Sugar, and Fat in Low Moisture Cereal Based Products: A Review on Sugar-Snap Cookies.

Pedersen L, Kaack K, Bergsoem N, Adler-Nissen J. 2004. Rheological properties of biscuit dough from different cultivars, and relationship to baking characteristic. Journal of Cereal Science 39, 37-46.

Charlotte Serrem, Henriette L, de Kock, John Taylor. 2011. Nutritional quality, sensory quality and consumer acceptability of sorghum and bread wheat biscuits fortified with defatted soy flour. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 46, 74–83.

Siddiqui NR, Hassan M, Raza S, Hameed L, Khalil S. 2003: Sensory and physical evaluation of biscuits supplemented with soy flour. Pakistan J Food Sci. 13(1-2), 45- 48.

Sodjinou E, Biaou G, Codjia JC. 2002. Caractérisation du marché des escargots géants africains (achatines) dans les départements de l’Atlantique et du littoral au Sud-Bénin. Tropicultura 20(2), 83- 88.

Srivastava Y, Semwal AD, Kumar GS, Singh AB. 2010. Effect of Virgin Coconut Meal (VCM) on the Textural, Thermal and Physico Chemical Properties of Biscuits. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2, 38-44.

Sutton MQ. 1988. Insects as food: aboriginal entomophagy in the Great Basin. Ballena. Press Anthropology Papers, 33, 115.

Talati JG, Patel KV, Patel BK. 2004. Biochemical Composition, In vitro Protein Digestibility, Antinutritional Factors and Functional Properties of Mustard Seed, Meal and Protein Isolate. Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 41, No. 4, July/August, p. 608-612.

Tharrault JF. 1997. Qualité biscuitière des farines de blé tender: des blés biscuitiers pour une bonne maîtrise de la texture des biscuits. In, GODON B. et LOISEL W. Guide pratique d’analyse dans les industries des céréales. Lavoisier. Tec. et doc. Paris. p. 819.

Tyagi SK, Manikantan MR, Oberoi HS, Kaur G. 2007. Effect of Mustard Flour Incorporation on Nutrition, Textural and Organoleptic Characteristics of Biscuits. Journal of Food Engineering 80(4), 1043-1050.

Ubbor SC, Akobundu ENT. 2009. Quality Characteristics of Cookies from Composite Flours of Watermelon Seed, Cassava and Wheat, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (7), 1097-1102.

Zoulias EI, Oreopoulou V, Kounalaki E. 2002. Effect of Fat and Sugar Replacement on Cookie Properties. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 82, 1637–1644.