Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | January 1, 2020

| Download 1

Recovery of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition by Methanolic Bark Extract of Acacia nilotica from Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure in mice model

Raphael Mwezi, Revocatus L. Machunda, Hamisi M. Malebo

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.16(1), 1-13, January 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/16.1-13


IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Organophosphates (OPs) pesticides are reported to cause acute poisoning because of their ability to inhibit acetyl cholinesterase enzyme (AChE). Available antidotes drugs are atropine sulfur, Pralidoxime (2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride) and diazepam, which act to recover OP-AChE inhibition. These are controlled drugs not easily accessed and very expensive. In this present study Acacia nilotica was assessed for its antioxidant activity, and in vivo AChE depression and recovery from OP-AChE inhibition. The mice were exposed in three different OPs including chlorpyrifos 480g/l (CPF), Fenitrothion 10g/l (FNT) and Profenophos 720g/l (PFP). The methanolic bark extract of A. nilotica had a substantial increase of absorbance readings from 2.895±0.0032 to 3.716±0.0259 compared to standard (ascorbic acid) from 0.108±0.0033 to 1.468±0.0297 at P<0.05. AChE depression and recovery were assessed by using the AChE test mate kit to analyze blood collected from the mice’s tail. Recovery effect under crude methanolic extract from A. nilotica, ascorbic acid and normal feeding were compared with the untreated group. Results have shown that there is a significant decrease of AChE level from Day zero to 14th day in all treated groups of CPF, PFP and FNT which indicate poisoning. Significance of AChE recovery observed only in male mice in all treatment groups. This is a first study to assess and report the antioxidant activity of stem bark methanolic extracts of A. nilotica in controlling organophosphate pesticide toxicity in mice, hence further studies on isolation of active compounds are recommended.


Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Recovery of acetyl cholinesterase inhibition by Methanolic Bark Extract of Acacia nilotica from Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure in mice model

Aadil KR, Barapatre A, Sahu S, Jha H, Tiwary BN. 2014. Free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of Acacia nilotica wood lignin. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 67, 220–227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.03.040

kefe IO. 2017. Protective Effects Antioxidants in Chlorpyrifos Toxicity, iMedPub Journals 1–2.

Altuntas I, Delibas N, Doguc DK, Ozmen S, Gultekin F. 2003. Role of reactive oxygen species in organophosphate insecticide phosalone toxicity in erythrocytes in vitro, Toxicology in Vitro 17, 153–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-2333(02)00133-9

Ambali SF, Aliyu MB. 2012. Short-term sensorimotor and cognitive changes induced by acute chlorpyrifos exposure in Wistar, Pharmacologia 3(2), 31-38.

Anjum F, Bukhari S, Shahid M. 2013. Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Parasitic Plant Collected from Different Hosts. Journal of Food Processing and Technology 4(5), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7110.1000228

Atif Ali. 2012. Acacia nilotica: A plant of  multipurpose medicinal uses. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6(9). https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR11.1275

Chidiebere Uchendu. 2012. The organophosphate, chlorpyrifos, oxidative stress and the role of some antioxidants: A review. African journal of agricultural reseearch. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR11.2510

Comfort N, Re DB. 2017. Sex-Specific Neurotoxic Effects of Organophosphate Pesticides Across the Life Course. Current Environmental Health Reports, 4(4), 392–404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40572-017-0171-y

Del E, Singh R, Singh B, Singh S, Kumar N, Kumar S, Arora S. 2008. Toxicology in Vitro Anti-free radical activities of kaempferol isolated from Acacia nilotica ( L .) Willd . Toxicology in Vitro, 22(8), 1965–1970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2008.08.007

Duganath N, Kumar SR, Kumanan R, Jayaveera KN. 2010. Evaluation of anti-denaturation property and anti-oxidant activity of traditionally used medicinal plants Natural chemistry, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, 1(2), 1-7.

Eddleston M, Buckley NA, Eyer P, Dawson A. H. 2008. Management of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The Lancet, 371(9612), 597–607. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61202-1

Elibariki R, Maguta MM. 2017. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania – A review. Chemosphere 178, 154–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.03.036

Farghaly M. 2008. Toxicological evaluation and bioavailability of on soybeans towards experimental animals C-fenitrothion bound residues, Food and Chemical Toxicology 46, 3111–3115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2008.06.015

Fayuk D, Yakel JL. 2004. Regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel function by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in rat hippocampal CA1 interneurons, American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics,23-46. https://doi.org/10.1124/mol.104.000042

Gupta VK, Sharma SK. 2006. Plants as natural antioxidants, Natural Product Radiance 5(4), 326–334.

Harmacy P, Ciences LIFES. 2011. Medicinal attributes of Acacia nilotica Linn. – A comprehensive review on ethnopharmacological claims, International journal of pharmacy & life sciences 2(6), 830–837.

Ismail MA, Koko WS, Osman EE, Dahab MM, Garbi MI, Alsadeg AM, Kabbashi AS. 2016. Molluscicidal Activity of Acacia seyal (Dell) Bark Methanolic Extract Against Biomphalaria pfeifferi Snails. International Biological and Biomedical Journal 2(2), 73–79.

Jindal R, Kaur M. 2014. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and assessment of its recovery response in some organs of textit{{Ctenopharyngodon} idellus} induced by chlorpyrifos. International Journal of Science, Environment and Technology 3(2), 473–480.

Johns T, Mahunnah RLA, Sanaya P, Chapman L, Ticktin T. 1999. Saponins and phenolic content in plant dietary additives of a traditional subsistence community, the Batemi of Ngorongoro District , Tanzania 66, 1–10.

Kalaivani T, Mathew L. 2010. Free radical scavenging activity from leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. ex Delile, an Indian medicinal tree. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48(1), 298–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2009.10.013

Kapeleka JA, Lekei EE, Hagali T. 2016. Pesticides Exposure and Biological Monitoring of Ache Activity among Commercial Farm Workers in Tanzania : A Case of Tea Estates. International Journal of Science and Research 5(9), 1708–1713. https://doi.org/10.21275/ART20161938

Lekei EE, Ngowi AV, London L. 2016. Undereporting of acute pesticide poisoning in Tanzania : modelling results from two cross-sectional studies. Environmental Health. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12940-016-0203-3

Maitra SK. 2018. Reproductive Toxicity of Organophosphate Pesticides, Annals of Clinical Toxicology 1(1), 1–8. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327052798

Malaysiana S, Fraksi K, Tokotrienol K, Oksidatif K, Diaruh H, Union E. 2017. The Effect of Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction on Oxidative Liver Damage Induced by Fenitrothion 46(9), 1603–1609.

Mevlüt S. 2013. Chemosphere Chlorpyrifos-induced changes in oxidant / antioxidant status and haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio carpio : Ameliorative effect of lycopene, Chemosphere journal of Elsevier Ltd, 90, 2059–2064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.12.006

Morsy FA. 2003. Protective Effect of Vitamin C and Ginseng on Experimental Liver and Kidney Injuries Induced by Insecticide Profenophos In Male Rats, The Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine 10, 34–51.

Ngowi A, Mrema E, Ngowi A, Kishinhi S, Mamuya S. 2017. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania. Environmental Health Insights 11(0). https://doi.org/10.1177/1178630217715237

Ngowi AV, Maeda DN, Partanen TJ, Sanga MP, Mbise G. 2001. Acute health effects of organophosphorus pesticides on Tanzanian small-scale coffee growers. Journal of Exposure Analysis and Environmental Epidemiology 11, 335–339. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jea.7500172

Oruc E. 2012. Oxidative stress responses and recovery patterns in the liver of oreochromis niloticus exposed to chlorpyrifos-Ethyl. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88(5), 678–684. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0548-4

Ravikumar S, Angelo RU. 2015. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Acacia Nilotica Leaf Extract and Its Antibacterial and Anti Oxidant Activity 4(4), 433–444.

Sadiq MB, Hanpithakpong W, Tarning J, Anal AK. 2015. Screening of phytochemicals and in vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of leaves, pods and bark extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. Industrial Crops and Products 77, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2015.09.067

Sancho E, Ferrando MD, Andreu E. 1997. Response and recovery of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in the European Eel, Anguilla anguilla, exposed to fenitrothion. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 38(3), 205–209. https://doi.org/10.1006/eesa.1997.1579

Shahzad B, Shahid A, Anwar F, Manzoor M, Bajwa J. 2006. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of rice bran extracts using different antioxidant assays. Grasas Y Aceites, 57(3), 328–335. https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.2006.v57.i3.56

Singh J, Singh R, Kumar S. 2012. Comparing of antioxidant and H2O2 induced free radical scavenging activity of Sesbania grandiflora and Acacia nilotica plants. Journal Of Scientific & Innovative Research 1(2), 51–59.

Sultana B, Anwar F, Przybylski R. 2007. Food Chemistry Antioxidant activity of phenolic components present in barks of Azadirachta indica , Terminalia arjuna , Acacia nilotica , Elsevier Ltd Food and Chemistry 104, 1106–1114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.019

Taylor P, Farghaly M, Mahdy F, Taha H,  Fathy U. 2007. Behavior of the organophosphorus insecticide fenitrothion in stored faba beans and its biological effects towards experimental animals, Journal of Environmental Science and Health 10, 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/03601230701465718

Test-mate ChE Cholinesterase Test System (Model 400) – Instruction Manual. 2003. EQM Research, Inc., (Model 400), 18, Retrieved from http://www.eqmresearch.com/Manual-E.pdf

Unite Nations. General Assembly. Human Rights Council. 2009. General Assembly, 01059(February).

Venkateswara Rao J. 2006. Sublethal effects of an organophosphorus insecticide (RPR-II) on biochemical parameters of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – C Toxicology and Pharmacology 143(4), 492–498. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2006.05.001

Verma RS, Mehta A, Srivastava N. 2007. In vivo chlorpyrifos induced oxidative stress : Attenuation by antioxidant vitamins 88, 191–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2006.11.002

WHO. 2014. Regional assessment report on chemicals of public health concern WHO, ISBN: 978-929023281-0.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background