Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Shelf stable iron fortified fruit bar’s development, proximate estimation and organoleptic characterization

Research Paper | April 1, 2020

| Download 10

Syeda Mahvish Zahra, Sarfraz Hussain, Shahid Mahmood, Tusneem Kausar, Ghulam Mueen Ud Din, Tabussam Tufail, Nagina Altaf, Muhammad Yousaf Quddoos, Ayesha Rafique, Muhammad Zia Shahid

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.16( 4), 111-135, April 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/16.4.111-135


IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


No bake, vegan, easy to develop, shelf stable and convenience food “Fruit bars” are an excellent vehicle to provide nutrients especially iron as well as energy to its consumers. Eight treatments of fruit bars fortified with alternative ratio of indigenous iron fortificants (spearmint and apricot kernel) were developed with incorporation of (dried apricot, quince fruit paste, barley flour, dried milk powder) along with placebo and synthetic iron fortified fruit bars. Product was analyzed for proximate composition and Fe, for shelf stability water activity and free fatty acids were done, while were finally statistically analyzed after organoleptic judgment. Apricot kernel and spearmint had Fe 29.62 ± 0.47 and 87.32 ± 0.71 mg/ 100 g. During the storage study of 60 days, the Fe followed a non-significantly decreasing trend in all treatments. Ash content (%) was maximum in T2 followed by T1. Maximum Fe was determined in T3. At 0th day in all treatments NFE content ranged from 56.05 to 60.17, moisture content ranged from 11.00 to 25.93, and ash content ranged from 2.96 to 4.07 %. Except moisture content all nutritional contents were non-significant during storage of 60 days. Water activity ranged within safe range of water activity for foods while free fatty acid ranged from 0.047 to 0.079 % in storage. T3 was termed as best treatment after organoleptic evaluation. These fortified bars if developed commercially will be an exclusive solution to mitigate iron deficiency.


Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Shelf stable iron fortified fruit bar’s development, proximate estimation and organoleptic characterization

AACC. 2000. Approved Methods of Analyses. 10th Ed. American Association of Cereals Chemists. St. Paul, Minnesota. USA.

Abdel-Rahman MK. 2011. Can apricot kernels fatty acids delay the atrophied hepatocytes from progression to fibrosis in dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver injury in rats?. Lipids in health and disease 10(1), 114.

Adsersen A, Gauguin B, Gudiksen L, Jäger AK. 2006. Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104(3), 418-22.

Agrahari PR, Khurdna D, Lata S, Kaur C, Kapoor HC. 2004. Antioxidant activity and quality of soy enriched apple bar. Journal of Food Processing Preservation 28, 145–159.

Aguayo E, Allende A, Artés F. 2003. Keeping quality and safety of minimally fresh processed melon. European Food Research and Technology 216(6), 494-9.

Ahmad S, Vashney AK, Srivasta PK. 2005. Quality attributes of fruit bar made from papaya and tomato by incorporating hydrocolloids. International Journal of Food Properties 8(1), 89-99.

Akhtar J, Bano I, Pandey RK, Husainb A, Malik S. 2014. Effect of different level of pectin and starch on quality and storage stability of apple-date fruit bar. Journal of Food Products Development and Packaging 1, 31-6.

Al-Hooti S, Sidhu JS, Al-Otaibi J, Al-Ameeri H, Al-Qabazard H. 1997. Date bars fortified with almonds, sesame seeds, oat flakes and skim mik powder. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 51(2), 125-35.

Ali S, Masud T, Abbasi KS. 2011. Physico-chemical characteristics of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) grown in Northern Areas of Pakistan. Scientia Horticulturae 130(2), 386-92.

Alijošius S, Švirmickas GJ, Kliševičiūtė V, Gružauskas R, Šašytė V, Racevičiūtė-Stupelienė A, Daukšienė A, Dailidavičienė J. 2016. The chemical composition of different barley varieties grown in Lithuania. Veterinarija ir Zootechnika 73(95), 9-13.

Anju B, Kumari KR, Anand V, Anjum MA. 2014. Preparation, quality evaluation and storage stability of peach-soy fruit leather. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 12(1), 73-88.

AOAC. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed.  Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Virginia, USA.

Bhatt DK, Jha A. 2015. A Study of Incorporation of Therapeutic Values of Wood Apple (Feronia Limonia Swingle) In Fruit Bar. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 6(10), 4398-4405.

Bilgicli N, Akbulut M. 2009. Effects of different pekmez (fruit molasses) types on chemical, nutritional content and storage stability of cake. Journal of Food Quality 32(1), 96-107.

Bower JA, Whitten R. 2000. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking for cereal bar snack foods. Journal of Sensory Studies 15(3), 327-45.

Brasil. 2003. Technical Regulation on Nutritional Labeling of Packaged Foods, making nutrition labeling mandatory. Official Gazette of the Federative Republic of Brazil, Brasília, DF, 22 Dec. 2003. Section 1, n. 251.

Choudhury RP, Kumar A, Garg AN. 2006. Analysis of Indian mint (Mentha spicata) for essential, trace and toxic elements and its antioxidant behaviour. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 41(3), 825-32.

de Penna Wittig E, Bunger A, Sansur M, López L, Santana R. 1993. Development of soy-based protein candy bars for athletes. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 43(3), 241-7.

Dutcosky SD, Grossmann MV, Silva RS, Welsch AK. 2006. Combined sensory optimization of a prebiotic cereal product using multicomponent mixture experiments. Food Chemistry 98(4), 630-8.

Escobar B, Estevez AM, Tepper A, Aguayo M. 1998. Nutritional characteristics of cereal and peanut bars. Archivos Latinoamericanos De Nutrición 48, 156–159.

Estevez AM, Escobar B, Ugarte V. 2000. Use of mesquite cotyledon (Prosopis chilensis (Mol) Shuntz) in the manufacturing of cereal bars. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 50(2), 148-51.

Estevez AM, Escobar B, Vasquez M, Castillo E, Araya E, Zacarias I. 1995. Cereal and nut bars, nutritional quality and storage stability. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 47(4), 309-17.

Femenia A, Rossello C, Mulet A, Canellas J. 1995. Chemical composition of bitter and sweet apricot kernels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43(2), 356-61.

Fontana AJ. 2000. Understanding the importance of water activity in food. Cereal Foods World 45(1), 7-10.

Freitas DGC, Moretti RH. 2005. Cereal bars made with soy protein and wheat germ, physical-chemical characteristics and texture during storage. Latin American Archives of Nutrition 55(3), 299-304.

Freitas DGC, Moretti RH. 2005. Cereal bars made with soy protein and wheat germ, physical-chemical characteristics and texture during storage. Latin American Archives of Nutrition 55(3), 299-304.

Garcia MC, Lobato LP, Benassi MT, Soares MSJ. 1998. Application of toasted rice bran in cereal bars. Food Science and Technology 32(4), 718-724.

Guimarães MM, Silva MS. 2009. Nutritional quality and acceptability of cereal bars with murici-raisin fruits. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz 68(3), 426-433.

Gurrieri F, Audergon JM, Albagnac G, Reich M. 2001. Soluble sugars and carboxylic acids in ripe apricot fruit as parameters for distinguishing different cultivars. Euphytica 117(3), 183-9.

Gutkoski LC, Bonamigo JMA, Teixeira DMF, Pedó I. 2007. Development of oat-based cereal bars with high content of dietary fiber. Food Science and Technology 27(2), 355-363.

Huma N, Rehman SU, Anjum FM, Sheikh MA. 2004. Fortification of whole wheat flour with iron for the Production of unleavened flat bread (chapattis). (Ph.D Thesis). Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-Pakistan.

Jan K, Jairajpuri DS, Jan S. 2012. Preparation of Nutri Bar for Lactating Women. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 1(5), 10-14.

Jeyarani T, Khan MI, Khatoon S. 2009. Trans-free plastic shortenings from coconut stearin and palm stearin blends. Food Chemistry 114(1), 270-5.

Kamel BS, Kakuda Y. 1992. Characterization of the seed oil and meal from apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach and plum. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 69(5), 492-4.

Kamran M, Rauf M, Jamil K, Saleem N, Umar ZN, Tarar OM. 2008. Processing and shelf life studies of intermediate moisture mango slices. Pakistan Journal of Food Sciences (Pakistan).

Kourany MS, Khalil KI, Sae M, Mohdaly AA. 2017. Protein Fortified Mango and Guava Fruit Bars: Ingredients Optimization, Quality Evaluation and Storage Stability. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 6(12), 2865-77.

Krishna G, Ranjhan SK. 1981. Laboratory manual for nutrition research (1stEd). Vikas Publishing House (P) Ltd. New Delhi, 36-52.

Kumar AL, Madhumathi C, Sadarunnisa S, Latha P. 2017. Quality evaluation and storage study of papaya guava fruit bar. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 6(4), 2082-7.

Leccese A, Bureau S, Reich M, Renard MC, Audergon JM, Mennone C, Bartolini S, Viti R. 2010. Pomological and nutraceutical properties in apricot fruit: cultivation systems and cold storage fruit management. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 65(2), 112-20.

Lichou J, Jay M, Vaysse P. 2003. Reconnaître les variétés d’abricot. Éditions Centre technique interprofessionnel des fruits et legumes, 17-29.

Maurer G, Fukuda G, Nielsen S. 2005. Development of bean-based granola bars and cereal. Cereal Foods World 50(1), 27.

Meilgaard M, Civille GV, Carr BT. 2006. Sensory Evaluation Techniques. 4th Ed. CRC Press. New York. USA, 448.

Mourao LH, Pontes DF, Rodrigues MD, Brasil IM, Souza Neto MA, Cavalcante MT. 2009. Obtaining plum cashew cereal bars with high fiber content. Food and Nutrition 20(3), 427-433.

Mourão LHE, Pontes DF, Rodrigues MCP, Brazil IM, Souza MAN, Cavalcante MTB. 2009. Obtaining plum cashew cereal bars with high fiber content. Food and Nutrition 20(3), 427-433.

Munhoz CL, Guimarães RD, Nozaki VT, Sanjinez-Argandoña EJ, Hiane PA, Macedo ML. 2014.  Preparation of a cereal bar containing bocaiuva: physical, nutritional, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Acta Scientiarum. Technology 36(3), 553-60.

Munir M, Nadeem M, Qureshi TM, Jabbar S, Atif FA, Zeng X. 2016. Effect of protein addition on the physicochemical and sensory properties of fruit bars. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 3, 559-66.

Munzuroglu O, Karatas F, Geckil H. 2003. The vitamin and selenium contents of apricot fruit of different varieties cultivated in different geographical regions. Food Chemistry 83(2), 205-12.

Nadeem M, Haseeb M, Aziz AJ. 2012. Development and physico-chemical characterization of apricot-date bars. Journal of Agricultural Research 50(3).

Nadeem M, Rehman SU, Mahmood QT, Nadeem RM, Mehmood A, Wang C. 2018. Development, characterization, and flavor profile of nutrient dense date bars. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 42(10), e13622.

Nanjundaswamy AM, Shetty GR, Saroja S. 1976. Studies on the development of newer products from mango. Indian Food Packer 30, 95–103.

Onwuka UN, Abasiekong KS. 2006. Production and eval‐ uation of chocolate bars from roasted and unroasted African breadfruit and bambara groundnut flours. Journal of Food Process and Preservation 30, 534–548.

Özgen U, Mavi A, Terzi Z, Coşkun M, Houghton PJ. 2006. Antioxidant properties of some medicinal Lamiaceae (Labiatae) species. Pharmaceutical Biology 44(2), 107-12.

Papachristos DP, Stamopoulos DC. 2002. Repellent, toxic and reproduction inhibitory effects of essential oil vapours on Acanthoscelides obtectus and Coleoptera Bruchidae. Journal of Stored Products Research 38(2), 117-28.

Pereira de Abreu DA, Cruz JM, Losada PP. 2012. Active and intelligent packaging for the food industry. Food Reviews International 28(2), 146–87.

Pilon L, Oetterer M, Gallo CR, Spoto MH. 2006. Shelf life of minimally processed carrot and green pepper. Food Science and Technology 26(1), 150-8.

Rasheed M, Hussain I, Rafiq S, Hayat I, Qayyum A, Ishaq S, Awan MS. 2018. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of quince fruit pulp collected from different locations. International Journal of Food Properties 21(1), 2320-7.

Rokhsana F, Yeasmin R, Nahar A. 2007. Studies on the development and storage stability of legume and vegetable based soup powder. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 32(3), 451-9.

Rosell CM. 2007. Vitamin and mineral fortification of bread. In B. Hamaker (Eds.), Technology of functional cereal products. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd., 336- 361.

Ryavanki SS, Hemalatha S. 2018. Accelerated Shelf Life Study of AKJ-1 (Atharga kempu jola) Red Sorghum Flakes Based Low Glycemic Index Snack Bar. International Journal Current Microbiology and Applied Science 7(3), 275-82.

Safdar MN, Mumtaz AM, Amjad M, Siddiqui N, Raza S, Saddozai AA. 2014. Quality of guava leather as influenced by storage period and packing materials. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture 30(2), 247-256.

Samarth RM, Kumar A. 2003. Mentha piperita (Linn.) leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow of mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 41, 229-237.

Sangwan A, Kawatra A, Sehgal S. 2012. Nutrient composition of mint powder prepared from various drying methods. Nutrition & Food Science 42(1), 21-25.

Shaheen B, Nadeem M, Kauser T, Mueen-ud-Din G, Mahmood S. 2013. Preparation and nutritional evaluation of date based fiber enriched fruit bars. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 12(12), 1061-5.

Sharma M. 1997. Studies on the preparation and evaluation of plum-soy products. M. Sc. Thesis. Dr. Parmar YS. University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nuani. India.

Sharma SK, Chaudhary SP, Rao VK, Yadav VK, Bisht TS. 2013. Standardization of technology for preparation and storage of wild apricot fruit bar. Journal of Food Science and Technology 50(4), 784-90.

Silva EP, Siqueira HH, Damiani C, BOAS V, de Barros EV. 2016. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of snack bars added of jerivá flour (Syagrus romanzoffiana). Food Science and Technology 36(3), 421-5.

Silva IQ, Oliveira BCF, Lopes AS, Pena RS. 2009. Obtaining a cereal bar with added passion fruit industrial residue. Food and Nutrition 20(2), 321-329.

Srebernich SM, Gonçalves GM, Ormenese RD, Ruffi CR. 2016. Physico-chemical, sensory and nutritional characteristics of cereal bars with addition of acacia gum, inulin and sorbitol. Food Science and Technology 36(3), 555-62.

Tognolini M, Barocelli E, Ballabeni V, Bruni R, Bianchi A, Chiavarini M, Impicciatore M. 2006. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity. Life Sciences 78(13), 1419-32.

USDA. 2010. Apricots, dried, sulfured, uncooked Available at http://www.nal.usda.gov.fnic/foodcomp/search/driedapricot

USDA. 2014. Spearmint, dried, powder Available at http://www.nal.usda.gov.fnic/foodcomp/search/spearmintpowder

Utrilla‐Coello RG, Agama‐Acevedo E, Osorio‐Díaz P, Tovar J, Bello‐Pérez LA. 2011. Composition and starch digestibility of whole grain bars containing maize or unripe banana flours. Starch‐Stärke 63(7), 416-23.

Yousif AK, Alghamdi AS. 2001. Suitability of some date cultivars for candy making. Tropical Science 41(3), 156-8.

Zahra SM, Nadeem M, Hussain S, Qureshi TM, Din A, Rashid F. 2014. Development and evaluation of nutri-bars for internally displaced people in humanitarian emergencies. Journal of Agricultural Research 52(2), 217-26.