The effect of aerobic exercise and saffron supplementation on antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats

Paper Details

Research Paper 15/04/2014
Views (380) Download (5)

The effect of aerobic exercise and saffron supplementation on antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats

Seyed Sajjad Hosseini, Mosa Jalili, Mehrieh Panahi, Zabihollah Naghilou, Manochehr Dezhahang
Int. J. Biosci.4( 8), 1-7, April 2014.
Certificate: IJB 2014 [Generate Certificate]


The purpose of the present research was to study the effect of aerobic exercise and saffron supplementation on antioxidants capacity in diabetic rats. 50 male rats (age: 10 weeks; weight: 325±32.7 grams) were randomly divided into healthy-control (HC), diabetic-control (DC), diabetic-exercise (DE), diabetic-saffron (DS), and diabetic-saffron-exercise (DSE) groups (n = 10 per group). Except for the HC group, all the other groups induced with diabetes by injecting streptozotocin. For a period of 4 weeks, the DS and DSE groups received 30 mg/kg of daily saffron supplementation through oral gavage. The DE and DSE groups ran on the treadmill at a specific speed for 4 weeks, 4 session per week, and 30 minutes per session. After 24 hours of last session of exercise and saffron gavage, rats’ hepatic was extracted and their Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and Glutathione (GSH) were measured. Results showed that there is a significant difference between the five groups in the levels of GSH and TAC (P = 0.000) and GSH level had the largest and lowest increase in DSE and DC respectively (P = 0.032). TAC level had the largest and lowest increase in DSE and DC respectively (P = 0.005). Thus, it can be concluded that a combination of saffron supplementation and low-intensity aerobic exercise is effective for improving the antioxidant capacity of diabetic rats.


Agha Hosseini  M,  Kashani  L,  Aleyaseen  A, Ghoreishi A, Rahmanpour H, Zarrinara A, Akhondzadeh S. 2008. Crocus sativus L.(saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double blind, randomised and placebo controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 115(4), 515-519.

Akhondzadeh S, Fallah-Pour H, Afkham K, Jamshidi AH, Khalighi-Cigaroudi F. 2004. Comparison of Crocus sativus L. and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: A pilot double-blind randomized trial[ISRCTN 45683816]. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 4(1), 12-17.

Assimopoulou A, Sinakos Z,  Papageorgiou V. 2005. Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents. Phytotherapy Research 19(11), 997-1000. 10.1002/ptr.1749

Bloomer RJ, Goldfarb AH. 2004. Anaerobic exercise and oxidative stress: a review. Canadian journal of applied physiology 29(3), 245-263.

Chen Y, Zhang H, Tian X, Zhao C, Cai L, Liu Y, Jia L, Yin HX, Chen C. 2008. Antioxidant potential of crocins and ethanol extracts of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS and Crocus sativus L.: A relationship investigation between antioxidant activity and crocin contents. Food Chemistry 109(3), 484-492.

Chessler SD, Lernmark A. 2000. Type 1 (Insulin-Dependent) Diabetes Mellitus. Clinical diabetes mellitus: a problem-oriented approach, 37.

Eaton M, Hodgson D, Evans D, Rose R. 1999. Effects of low and moderate intensity training on metabolic responses to exercise in Thoroughbreds. Equine Veterinary Journal 31(S30), 521-527.

Evans JL. 2007. Antioxidants: do they have a role in the treatment of insulin resistance? Indian Journal of Medical Research 125(3), 355-372.

Evans JL., Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, Grodsky, GM. 2002. Oxidative stress and stress-activated signaling pathways: a unifying hypothesis of type 2 diabetes. Endocrine Reviews 23(5), 599-622.

Evans JL, Goldfine ID, Maddux BA, Grodsky, GM. 2003. Are Oxidative Stress- Activated Signaling Pathways Mediators of Insulin Resistance and -Cell Dysfunction? Diabetes 52(1), 1-8.

Evans JL, Maddux BA, Goldfine ID. 2005. The molecular basis for oxidative stress-induced insulin resistance. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 7(7-8), 1040-1052.

Fedration   ID.    2008.   Diabets:   a   global   threat. Diabets Atlas, 3 edition, 1-15.

Hansen AK, Fischer CP, Plomgaard P, Andersen JL, Saltin B, Pedersen BK. (2005). Skeletal muscle adaptation: training twice every second day vs. training once daily. Journal of Applied Physiology 98(1), 93-99. 10.1152/japplphysiol.00163.2004

 Hosseinzadeh H, Sadeghnia HR, Ziaee T, Danaee A. 2005. Protective effect of aqueous saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) and crocin, its active constituent, on renal ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative damage in rats. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences 8(3), 387-393.

Hosseinzadeh H, Talebzadeh F. 2005. Anticonvulsant evaluation of safranal and crocin from Crocus sativus in mice. Fitoterapia 76(7-8), 722-724.

Kanakis CD, Tarantilis PA, Tajmir-Riahi HA, Polissiou MG. 2007. Crocetin, dimethylcrocetin, and safranal bind human serum albumin: stability and antioxidative properties. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 55(3), 970- 10.1021/jf062638l

Kretzschmar MD, Muller J, Hubscher EM, Klinger W. 1991. influence of aging, training and acute physical exercise on plasma glutathione and lipid proxidase in men. International Journal of Sports Medicine 12, 218-222.

Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky K. 2002. Williams textbook of endocrinology. Recherche, 67, 02.

Liakopoulou-Kyriakides M, Kyriakidis D. 2002. Croscus sativus-biological active constitutents. Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, 26, 293-312.

Mena P, Maynar M, Gutierrez J, Maynar J, Timon J, Campillo J. 1991. Erythrocyte free radical scavenger enzymes in bicycle professional racers. Adaptation to training. International Journal of Sports Medecine 12(6), 565-566.

Ochiai T, Shimeno H, Mishima K, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M, Tanaka H, Soeda S. 2007. Protective effects of carotenoids from saffron on neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects, 1770(4), 578-584.

Powers SK, Criswell D, Lawler J, Ji L, Martin D, Herb RA, Dudley G. 1994. Influence of exercise and fiber type on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 266(2), R375.

Powers SK, JI LILI, Leeuwenburch C. 1999. Exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle antioxidant capacity: a brief review. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 31(7), 987-993.

Robertson RP, Harmon J, Tran PO, Tanaka Y, Takahashi H. 2003. Glucose toxicity in -cells: type 2 diabetes, good radicals gone bad, and the glutathione connection. Diabetes, 52(3), 581-585.

Saleem S, Ahmad M, Ahmad AS, Yousuf S, Ansari MA, Khan MB, Islam F. 2006. Effect of Saffron (Crocus sativus) on neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in cerebral ischemia in rats. Journal of medicinal food 9(2), 246-253.

Shapiro K, Gong WC. 2002. Natural products used for diabetes. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 42(2), 217-226

Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hamalainen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Rastas, M. 2001. Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. The New England Journal of Medicine 344(18), 1343-1350.

Urakawa H, Katsuki A, Sumida Y, Gabazza EC, Murashima S, Morioka K, Hori Y. 2003. Oxidative stress is associated with adiposity and insulin resistance in men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 88(10), 4673-4678.

Urso M, Clarkson P. 2003. Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation. Toxicology, 189(12), 41 – 54.

Verma S, Bordia A. 1998. Antioxidant property of Saffron in man. Indian journal of medical sciences, 52(5), 205-207.

Wang CJ, Shiow SJ, Lin JK. 1991.  Effects  of crocetin on the hepatotoxicity and hepatic DNA binding of aflatoxin B1 in rats. Carcinogenesis 12(3), 459-462.