Antioxidant activity of organic extracts of root bark of Ziziphus jujube Gaertn (L) var. hysudrica Edgew

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2019
Views (257) Download (13)

Antioxidant activity of organic extracts of root bark of Ziziphus jujube Gaertn (L) var. hysudrica Edgew

Dure-E-Shahwar, Khalid Hussain, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Zafar Iqbal, Ahmad Adnan, Naureen Shahzadi, Freeha Rafique
Int. J. Biosci.15( 2), 559-569, August 2019.
Certificate: IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Extracts of root bark of ziziphus jujube were prepared by using methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, chloroform and n-Hexane through maceration. Their total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined by using single concentration of all extracts (200µg/mL). Total phenolic contents 207.33, 197.33, 157.33, 97.33, 67.33mg eq GA/g were measured in methanol, dichloromethane, acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-hexan respectively. While total flavonoid contents 162.28, 162.28, 138.59, 133.33, 128.54 and 93,85mg eq rutin/g were measured in acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform, dichloromethane, n-hexane and methanol extract respectively. Antioxidant activity of organic extracts of root bark of Ziziphus jujube was measured by three methods; DPPH, TAC and ABTS assays. Highest antioxidant activity was observed for dichloromethane extract (DPPH 41.26%, ABTS 47.64% and TAC 504.87mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g of extract) and methanol extracts (DPPH 40.14%, ABTS 48.69% and TAC 501.21mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g of extract). The results of antioxidant potential can be clearly related to total phenolic content results as both dichloromethane and methanol extracts were high in total phenolics and have shown high antioxidant potential. A Dose dependent study was conducted by using DPPH and ABTS assays for determining IC50 value. Data was analyzed by using one-way ANOVA. Comparison was performed by using LSD test and p ˂ 0.05 was considered as significant.


Abalaka ME, Mann A, Adeyemo SO. 2011.studies on in-vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential and phytochemical screening of leaves of Ziziphus maurituana L. and Ziziphus spina-christi L. Journal of Medical Genetics and Genomics 3, 28-34.

Abarikwu SO, Duru QC, Chinonso OV, Njoku RC. 2015. Antioxidant enzymes activity, lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in the testis and epididymis, and steroidogenesis in rats after co-exposure to atrazine and ethanol. Andrologia 48, 548-557.

Andreadis AA, Hazen SL, Comhair SA, Erzurum SC. 2003. Oxidative and nitrosative events in asthama. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 35, 213-225.

Azam-Ali S, Bonkoungou E, Bowe C, deKock C, Godara A, Williams JT. 2006. Ber and OtherJujubes. International centre for underutilized crops, Southampton, UK.

Bakhshi JC, Singh P. 1974. The ber – a good choice for semi-arid and marginal soils. Indian Horticulture 19, 27-30.

Chang C, Yang M, Wen H, Chern J. 2002. Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 10, 178-182.

Chaudhry SA. 1969. Flora in Lyallpur & the Adjacent canal colony Districts. West Pakistan Agricultural University Layallpur, Pakistan.

Eiznhamer D, Xu Z. 2004. Betulinic acid: a promising anticancer candidate. IDrugs: The investigational drugs journal 4, 359-373.

Gharavi N, El-Kadi AOS. 2005. Tert-Butylhydroquinone is a novel aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 33, 365-372.

Goncharova NP, Isamukhamedov ASH, Glushenkova AI. 1990. Lipids of Ziziphus jujuba. Chemistry of Natural Compounds 26, 16-18.

Gretchen Z, Ashwell RN, Abisha K. 2005. Sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds of Ziziphus mauritiana fruit. European Food Research and Technology 221, 570-574.

Han BH, Park MH, Han YN. 1990. Cyclic peptide and peptide alkaloids from seeds of Ziziphus vulgaris. Phytochemistry 29, 3315- 3319.

Hsu HY, Yang JJ, Lin CC. 1997. Effects of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid on inhibiting tumour growth and enhancing the recovery of hematopoietic system postirradiation inmice. Cancer Letters 111, 7-13.

Janner P. 2003. Oxidative stress in Parkinson´s disease. Annals of Neurology 53, 26-36.

Jossang A, Zahir A, Diakite D. 1996. Mauritine J, a cyclopeptide alkaloid from Ziziphus mauritiana. Phytochemistry 42, 565-567.

Kasparova S, Brezova V, Valko M, Horecky J, Miynarik V. 2005. Study of oxidative stress in a rat model of chronic brain hypo-perfusion. Neurochemistry International 46, 601-611.

Kerr S, Brosnan MJ, Mclntyre M, Reid JL, Dominiczak AF, Hamilton CA. 1999. Superoxide anion production is increased in a model of genetic hypertension: role of endothelium. Hypertension         33, 1353-1358.

Kim DSHL, Pezzuto JM, Pisha E. 1998. Synthesis of betulinic acid derivatives with activity against human melanoma. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 8, 1707-1712.

Kuliev AA, Guseinova NK. 1974. The content of vitamin C, B1, B2and E in some fruits. Referativnyi Zhurnal 2, 69-73.

Lee S, Min B, Lee C, Kim K, Kho Y. 2003. Cytotoxic triterpenoids from the fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. Planta Medica 69, 1051-1054.

Leila AA, Khaled T, Chahinez AA. 2019. Assessment of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Ziziphus lotus and Peganum harmala. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology 43, 409-414.

Lyras L, Cairns NJ, Jenner A, Jenner P, Halliwell B. 1997. An assessment of oxidative demage to proteins,lipids and DNA in brain from patients with Alzheimer´s disease. Journal of Neurochemistry 68, 2061-2069.

Maisuthiskul P, Suttajt M, Pongsawatmanit R. 2007. Assessment of phenolic content and free radical scavenging capacity of some thai indigenous plants. Food Chemistry 100, 1409-1418.

Manzocco L, Anese M, Nicoli MC. 1998. Antioxidant propertiesof tea extracts as affected by processing. Lebens-mittel-Wissenschaft Und-Technologie 31, 694-698.

Marnett LJ. 1999. Lipid peroxidation and DNA demage by malondialdehyde. Mutation Research 424, 83-95.

McDonald S, Prenzler PD, Autolovich M, Robards K. 2001. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive extracts. Food Chemistry 73, 73-84.

Na M, An R, Lee S, Hong N, Yoo J, Lee C, Kim J, Bae K. 2001. Screening of crude drugs for antioxidative activity. Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy 32, 108-115.

Ogihara Y, Inoue O, Otsuka H, Kawai KI, Tanimura T, Shibata S. 1976. Droplet counter current chromatography for the separation of plant products. Journal of Chromatography 128, 218-223.

Olufunmiso O, Olajuyigbe, Anthony JA. 2011. Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. Subsp. Mucronata Willd. Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11, 1-8

Pareek OP. 2001. Fruits for the Future 2: Ber. International Centre for Underutilised Crops, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

Piluzza G, Bullittas S. 2011. Correlation between phenolic content and antioxidant properties in twenty four plant species of traditional ethnoveterinary use in Mediterranean area. Pharmaceutical Biology 49, 240-247.

Pisha E, Chai H, Lee I, Chagwedera T, Farnsworth N, Cordell G, Beecher C, Fong H, Kinghorn A, Brown D. 1995. Discovery of betulinic acid as a selective inhibitor of human melanomathat functionsby induction of apoptosis. Nature Medicine 10, 1046-1051.

Podmore ID, Griffiths HR, Herbert KE, Mistry N, Mistry P and Lunee J. 1998. Vitamin C exhibits pro-oxidant properties. Nature 392, 559.

Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. 1999. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Analytical Biochemistry 269, 337-341.

Riedel KM, Lee JH, Renita M, Martin SK, St. Schwartz SJ, Vdovotz Y. 2007. Isoflavones profiles, Phenol content and antioxidant activity of soybean seeds as influenced by cultivar and growing location in Ohio. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 87, 1197-1206.

Rizwan A, Niyaz A, Atta AN. 2017. “Ziziphus oxyphylla”: Ethnobotanical, ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review. ELSEVIER 19, 970-998.

Salima ZA, Hayette L, Beatrice G. 2018. Effect of ultrasound assisted extraction conditions on the recovery of phenolic compounds and in-vitro antioxidant activity of Jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) leaves. Food Technology 42, 96-108.

Sayre LM, Smith MA, Perry G. 2001. Chemistry and biochemistry of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disease. Current Medicinal Chemistry 8, 721-738.

Seeram NP, Henning SM, Lee R, Niu Y, Scheuller HS, Heber D. 2006. Catechin and caffeine contents of green tea dietarysupplements and correlation with antioxidant activity. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 54, 1599-1603.

Sharma V, Agrawal RC, Pandey S. 2013. Phytochemical screening and determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts. Journal of Environmental Research and Development 7, 1552-1558.

Singh JP and Singh IS. 1973. Some promising varieties of ber. Indian Horticulture 18, 3-4.

Sunny OA, Mojisola D, Adenike A, Bede A, Oghenetega A. 2016. Curcumin protects against gallic acid-induced oxidative stress, suppression of glutathione antioxidant defenses, hepaticand renal damagein rats. Renal Failure 38, 321-3228.

Tomoda M, Shimuju N, Gonda R. 1985. Pectic substances. II. The location of O- acetyl groups and the Smith degradation of Ziziphus Pectin A. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 33, 40174020.

Troyan AV, Kruglyakov GN. 1972 Produce with high vitamin content. Sadovodstvo 12, 30.

Tschesche R, Khokhar I, Wilhelm H, Eckhardt G. 1976. Jubanin Aand jubanin-B, new cyclopeptide alkaloids from Ziziphus jujuba. Phytochemistry 15, 541-542.

Tschesche R, Shah AH, Eckhardt G. 1979. Sativanine-A and sativanine-B, two new cyclopeptide alkaloids from the bark of Ziziphus sativa. Phytochemistry 18, 702-704.

Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovie M, Mazur M. 2006. Free radicals, metals and anti-oxidants in oxidative stress induced cancer. Chemico Biological Interactions 160, 1-40.

Woo WS, Kang SS, Shim SH, Wagner H, Chari VM, Seligmann O, Obermeier G. 1979. The structure of spinosin (2”-0-betaglucosyiswertisin) from Ziziphus vulgaris var. spinosus (seeds). Phytochemistry 18, 353-355.

Yarube IU, Ayo JO, Fatihu MY. 2014. Harmful effects of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on male reproductive organs of rats chronically exposed to sodium nitrate. Journal of Medicine in the Tropics 16, 5-8.

Ziping X, Weihua F, Jiankang C, Dongdong C, Weibo J. 2009. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents in peel and pulp of chinise jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) fruits. Journal of Food Biochemistry 33, 613-629.