Influence of municipal and industrial pollution on the diversity and the structure of benthic macro-invertebrates community of an urban river in Douala-Cameroon (Central-Africa)

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2016
Views (216) Download (4)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Influence of municipal and industrial pollution on the diversity and the structure of benthic macro-invertebrates community of an urban river in Douala-Cameroon (Central-Africa)

Onana Fils Mamert, Zébazé Togouet Serge Hubert, Koji Ernest, Nyamsi Tchatcho Nectaire Lié, Tchakonté Siméon
J. Bio. Env. Sci.8( 6), 120-133, June 2016.
Certificate: JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

In the harbor city of Douala, urban land use has increased dramatically over years, resulting in high variability in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we used benthic macro-invertebrates community structure to assess the impact of urban pollution on the aquatic health of an urban stream in Douala township. Samples were done monthly, from April 2011 to May 2012 in three sampling stations located on the watercourse Kondi and named K1, K2, and K3. Benthic macro-invertebrates were collected using a long-handled net (30 cm x 30 cm side, 400 µm mesh-size). Measurements of the environmental variables were done simultaneously. Physico-chemical analysis revealed the very poor health status of the Kondi stream with highly polluted water at station K2, which received the effluent of the Cameroon SABC brewery. A total of 2,258 individuals of benthic macro-invertebrates distributed into 28 families were identified. This macrofauna is dominated in the Kondi stream by pollution resistant taxa such as Chironomidae (21.70%) and Physidae (24.05%). Diversity indices, taxonomic richness, total abundance and relative abundance of insects were high in stations K1 and K3, revealing their slightly high diversity. These two stations receive mainly domestic wastes. Inversely, in station K2 which receives industrial and municipal effluents, benthic fauna is less diversified, with low diversity indices, lost of sensitive taxa, decrease of the abundance of aquatic insects. The results obtained in this study showed that bad management of municipal and industrial effluents contributes to degrade the water quality and to reduce biodiversity of benthic macro-invertebrates.

VIEWS 4

Allan JD. 2004. Landscapes and rivers capes: the influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Evolution Systematic 35, 257 – 284.

Amis MA, Rouget M, Balmford A, Thuiller W, Kleynhans CJ, Day J, Nel J. 2007. Predicting freshwater habitat integrity using land-use surrogates. Water 33, 215 – 222.

APHA (American Public Health Association). 1998. Standard method for examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, 20th edition, Washington, DC, 1150 p.

Armitage P, Cranston PS, Pinder LCV. 1994. The Chironomidae: Biology and Ecology of non-biting midges. London, Chapman and Hall, 572 p.

Barbour MT, Gerritsen J, Snyder BD, Stribling JB. 1999. Rapid bioassessment protocols for use in stream and wadeable rivers: periphyton, benthic macro-invertebrates and fish. 2nd edition, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, office of water, Washington, DC., 230 p.

Beyene A, Addis T, Kifle D, Legesse W, Kloos H, Triest L. 2009. Comparative study of diatoms and macro-invertebrates as indicators of severe water pollution: Case study of the Kabena and Akaki rivers in Addis Abeba, Ethiopia. Ecological Indicator 9, 381 – 392.

Bode RW, Novak MA, Abele LE, Heitzman DL, Smith AJ. 2002. Quality Assurance Work Plan for Biological Stream Monitoring in New York State. Albany (New York), Stream Biomonitoring Unit Bureau of Water Assessment and Management. Division of Water. NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, 41 p.

Bravard J, Lesueur P, Marion L. 2000. La dynamique des flux, la rétention et le renouvellement des sédiments. Fonctions et valeurs des zones humides, Paris, Dunod, 218 p.

Camargo JA, Alonso A, De La Puente M. 2004. Multimetric assessment of nutrient enrichment in impounded rivers based on benthic macro-invertebrates. Environmental Monitoring and Publishers 96, 233 – 249.

Carliste DM, Meador MR, Moulton II SR, Ruhl PM. 2007. Estimation and application of indicator values for common macro-invertebrates genera and families of the United States. Ecological Indicators 7, 22 – 23.

Colas F, Vigneron A, Felten V, Devin S. 2014. The contribution of a niche-based approach to ecological risk assessment: using macro-invertebrate species under multiple stressors. Environmental Pollution 185, 24 – 34.

Dajoz R. 2000. Précis d’écologie. Paris, Dunod, 615 p.

De Moor IJ, Day JA, De Moor FC. 2002. Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa Volume 9: Diptera. Prepared for the Water Research Commission, Pretoria, WRC Report No. TT 214/03, 210 p.

De Moor IJ, Day JA, De Moor FC. 2003a. Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa Volume 8: Insecta II. Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Neuroptera, Trichoptera & Lepidoptera. Prepared for the Water Research Commission, Pretoria, WRC Report No. TT 214/03, 219 p.

De Moor IJ, Day JA, De Moor FC. 2003b. Guides to the Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa Volume 7: Insecta I. Epheroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera. Prepared for the Water Research Commission, Pretoria, WRC Report No. TT 214/03, 301 p.

De Moor IJ, Day JA, De Moor FC. 2007. Guides for Freshwater Invertebrates of Southern Africa. Volume10: Coleopteran. Prepared for the Water Research Commission, Pretoria, WRC Report No. TT 207/03., 275 p.

Devidal S, Richard-Sirois C, Pouet M-F, Thomas O. 2007. Solutions curatives pour la restauration des lacs présentant des signes d’eutrophisation. Rapport interne, Observatoire de l’environnement et du développement durable, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, 51 p.

Durand JR, Lévêque C. 1981. Flore et faune aquatiques de l’Afrique sahelo-soudanienne (Tome II). Paris, ORSTOM, 483 p.

Fagrouch A, Berrahou A, El Halouani H, 2011. Impact d’un effluent urbain de la ville de Taourirt sur la structure des communautés de macroinvertébrés de l’oued Za (Maroc oriental). Revue des Sciences de l’Eau 24(2), 87-101.

Foto Menbohan S, ZebazeTogouet SH, Njine T, Nyamsi Tchatcho NL. 2010. Macroinvertébrés benthiques du cours d’eau Nga: Essai de caractérisation d’un référentiel par des analyses biologiques. European Journal of Scientific Research 43(1), 96 – 106.

Foto Menbohan S, Zebaze Togouet SH, Nyamsi Tchato NL, Njine T. 2011. Evolution spatiale de la diversité des peuplements de macroinvertébrés benthiques dans un cours d’eau anthropisé en milieu tropical (Cameroun). European Journal of Scientific Research 55(2), 291-300.

Foto Menbohan S, Koji E, Ajeagah Gideon A, Bilong Bilong CF, Njiné T. 2012. Impact of dam construction on the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates community in a periurban stream in Cameroon. International Journal of Biosciences 11, 137 – 145.

Foto Menbohan S, Tchakonte S, Ajeagah G, ZebazeTogouet SH, Bilong Bilong CF, Njine T. 2013. Water quality assessment using benthic macroinvertebrates in a periurban stream (Cameroon). International Journal of Biotechnology 2(5), 91-104.

Gresens SE, Belt KT, Tang JA, Gwinn DC, Banks PA. 2007. Temporal and spatial responses of Chironomidae (Diptera) and other benthic invertebrates to urban stormwater runoff. Hydrobiologia 575, 173-190.

Hilsenhoff WL. 1988. «Rapid field assessment of organic pollution with a family-level biotic index». Journal of the North America Benthological Society 7(1), 65 – 68.

INC (Institut National de Cartographie). 1980. Carte topographique de la région de Yaoundé au 1/50000. 4 p.

Kengni L, Tematio P, Filali Rharrassi K, Tepoule Ngueke J, Tsafack EI, Mboumi TL, Mounier S. 2012.Pollution des eaux superficielles et des nappes en milieu urbain : cas de la zone industrielle de Douala-Bassa (Cameroun). International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 6(4), 1838 – 1853.

Moisan J. 2006. Guide d’identification des principaux Macroinvertébrés benthiques d’eau douce du Québec, surveillance volontaire des cours peu profonds, Direction du suivi de l’état de l’environnement, Ministère du Développement Durable, de l’Environnement et des Parcs, 82 p.

Monkiedje A, Njiné T, Meyabeme Elono AL, Zebaze SH, Kemka N, Tchounwou PB, Djomo JE. 2004. Freshwater Microcosms-Based Assessment of Eco-toxicological Effects of a Chemical Effluent from Pilcam Industry in Cameroon. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 1(2), 111-123.

Morel J. 2007.Les ressources en eau sur terre: origine, utilisation et perspectives dans le contexte du changement climatique – un tour d’horizon de la littérature. Grenoble, Edition CRNS, 29 p.

Mouthon J. 2001. Mollusques dulcicoles et pollutions biodégradables des cours d’eau : échelle de sensibilité des espèces, genres et familles. Ingénieries 26, 3 – 15.

Nyamsi Tchatcho NL, Foto Menbohan S, Zebaze Togouet SH, Onana FM, Adandedjan D, Tchakonte S, Yemele Tsago C, Koji E, Njine T. 2014. Indice Multimétrique des Macroinvertébrés Benthiques Yaoundéens (IMMY) pour l’évaluation biologique de la qualité des eaux de cours d’eau de la Région du Centre Sud Forestier du Cameroun. European Journal of Scientific Research 123(4), 412 – 430.

Othoniel C. 2006. La croissance du biofilm photosynthétique : Un indicateur du statut trophique des rivières ? Thèse de Doctorat, Université de Bordeaux 1, France, 303 p.

Rodier J, Legube B, Merlet N. 2009. L’analyse de l’eau. Paris, Dunod, 9e édition, 1579 p.

Song MY, Leprieur F, Thomas A, Lek-Ang S, Chon TS, Lek S. 2009. Impact of agricultural land use on aquatic insect assemblages in the Garonne river catchment (SW France). Aquatic Ecology 43, 999 – 1009.

Stark JD, Boothroyd KG, Harding JS, Maxted JR, Scarsbrook MR. 2001. Protocols for Sampling Macroinvertebrates in Wadeable Streams. New Zealand Macroinvertebrates working group, report no. 1, Ministry for the Environment, 57 p.

Suchel J. 1972. Les climats du Cameroun. Thèse de Doctorat 3ème Cycle, Université de Bordeaux III, France, 1186 p.

Tachet H, Richoux P, Bournaud M, Usseglio-Polatera P. 2010. Invertébrés d’eau douce. Systématique, biologie écologie. Paris, CNRS éditions, 592 p.

Tchakonté S, Ajeagah GA, Diomande D, Camara IA, Konan KM, Ngassam P. 2014a. Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and Freshwater Shrimps diversity and distribution in five rivers in Douala, Cameroon. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 4, 183 – 194.

Tchakonté S, Ajeagah GA, Diomande D, Camara IA Ngassam P. 2014b. Diversity, dynamic and ecology of freshwater snails related to environmental factors in urban and suburban streams in Douala-Cameroon (Central Africa). Aquatic Ecology 48, 379 – 395.

Tchakonté S, Ajeagah GA, Camara AI, Diomandé D, Nyamsi Tchatcho NL, Ngassam P. 2015. Impact of urbanization on aquatic insect assemblages in the coastal zone of Cameroon: the use of biotraits and indicator taxa to assess environmental pollution. Hydrobiologia 755, 123 – 144.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). 2003. L’eau pour les hommes, l’eau pour la vie. Rapport mondial sur la mise en valeur des ressources en eau. 36 p.

Vikram Reddy M. 2005. Restoration and Management of Tropical Eutrophic Lakes. Enfield, Plymouth, Science Publishing Inc., 272 – 300.

Wang B, Liu D, Liu S, Zhang Y, Lu D Wang L. 2012. Impacts of urbanization on stream habitats and macroinvertebrate communities in the tributaries of Qiangtang River, China. Hydrobiologia 680, 39 – 51.

Wang SY, Bernhardt ES, Wrigh JP. 2014. Urban stream denitrifier communities are linked to lower functional resistance to multiple stressors associated with urbanization. Hydrobiologia 726, 13 – 23.

Zébazé Togouet SH. 2008. Eutrophisation et structure de la communauté zooplanctonique du Lac Municipal de Yaoundé. Thèse de Doctorat Ph.D, Université de Yaoundé I, Cameroun, 200 p.

Zhang Y, Zhao R, Kong W, Geng S, Bentsen CN, Qu X. 2013. Relationships between macro-invertebrate communities and land use types within different riparian widths in three headwater streams of Taizi River, China. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 28, 307 – 328.