Microbiological quality and shelf life of pasteurized, flavored carabao’s (Bubalus bubalus carabanensis) milk as influenced by food safety practices

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2018
Views (638) Download (25)

Microbiological quality and shelf life of pasteurized, flavored carabao’s (Bubalus bubalus carabanensis) milk as influenced by food safety practices

Bryan Rey R. Oliveros, James Arthur V. Robles, Maria Teresa M. Perez
J. Bio. Env. Sci.13( 6), 66-73, December 2018.
Certificate: JBES 2018 [Generate Certificate]


Microbiological contamination restricts the shelf life and degrades the quality of milk. Pasteurization usually kills contaminating microorganisms in milk but in the absence of appropriate food safety practices, its safety could be compromised. This study aims to evaluate the influence of food safety practices, aside from pasteurization, on the microbiological quality and shelf life of kitchen-pasteurized, flavored carabao’s milk. Careful observation of the pasteurization process and revision of the process flow diagram was made. Milk samples were tested for pathogenic microorganisms (E. coli and Salmonella sp.) and its the microbiological shelf life was assessed though monitoring of aerobic, coliform, and psychrotrophic plate counts. Results of this study showed that without any improvements on the food safety practices, pasteurized, flavored carabao’s milk could be contaminated with Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., as identified through 16s rRNA gene amplification. Thus, pasteurized milk was unfit for consumption. On the other hand, the pasteurized, flavored carabao’s milk with improvements on the food safety practices came out negative for E. coli and its estimated shelf life was set to 8 days. No Salmonella spp. was detected in both batches. This study shows that not only pasteurization, but also proper food safety practices are important in order to produce safe milk.


Alexandraki V, Kazou M, Angelopoulou A, Arena MP, Capozzi V, Russo P, Tsakalidou E. 2016. The Microbiota of Non-cow Milk and Products. Non-Bovine Milk and Milk Products.

Andrews WH, Wang H, Jacobson A, Hammack T. 2018. Chapter 5: Salmonella.

ABatt CA. 2014. Bacillus: Bacillus cereus. In Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (Second Ed, 1, p 124–128). Academic Press.

FDA. 2013. FDA Circular 2013-010.

Flores-Miyamoto A, Reij MW, Velthuis AJ. 2014. Do farm audits improve milk quality? Journal of Dairy Science 97, 1–9.

Griffiths MW, Schraft H. 2017. Bacillus cereus: Food Poisoning. In H. P. R. Christine E.R. Dodd, Tim Aldsworth, Richard A. Stein, Dean O. Cliver (Ed.), Foodborne Diseases (Third Ed, p 395–405). Academic Press.

Khedkar CD, Kalyankar SD, Deosarkar SS. 2015. Buffalo Milk. Encyclopedia of Food and Health (3rd ed.). Elsevier Ltd.

Koushki M, Koohy-Kamaly P, Azizkhani M, Hadinia N. 2016. Microbiological quality of pasteurized milk on expiration date in Tehran, Iran. Journal of Dairy Science 99, 1796–1801.

Li L, Renye JA, Feng L, Zeng Q, Tang Y, Huang L, Ren D, Yang P. 2016. Characterization of the indigenous microflora in raw and pasteurized buffalo milk during storage at refrigeration temperature by high-throughput sequencing. Journal of Dairy Science 99, 7016–7024.

Muensritharam L, Fanning S, Meharg C. 2016. Pathogens in Milk: Enterobacter Species. In Reference Module in Food Science. Elsevier.

Nascimento WGR, Moraes MS, Souza BV, Farias JOR, Melo DH, Nascimento JS. 2016. Enterobacter cloacae isolated from utensils used in baby feeding in a milk dispensary in rio. In XXV Congresso Brasileiro de Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos.

Ombarak RA, Hinenoya A, Awasthi SP, Iguchi A, Shima A, Elbagory ARM, Yamasaki S. 2016. Prevalence and pathogenic potential of Escherichia coli isolates from raw milk and raw milk cheese in Egypt. International Journal of Food Microbiology 221, 69–76.

Philippine Carabao Center. n.d.. Retrieved October 19, 2018, from www.pcc.gov.ph

Poppe C. 2011. Pathogens in Milk: Salmonella spp. In Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (Second Ed, p 93–98). Academic Press.

PSA. 2018. Carabao Situation Report, April-June 2018.

Smigic N, Djekic I, Tomasevic I, Miocinovic J, Gvozdenovic R. 2012. Implication of food safety measures on microbiological quality of raw and pasteurized milk. Food Control 25, 728–731.