Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Physicochemical and microbiological study of fresh cream and fermented butter (Smen) made from camel milk

Research Paper | March 1, 2022

| Download 33

Saïd Mosbah, Ghania Annou, M’hamed Bouricha, Safia Mekkaoui, Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.20( 3), 52-59, March 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.3.52-59


IJB 2022 [Generate Certificate]


Smen is the most used local product by Algerian nomadic peoples, which is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of camel milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh cream separated from camel milk and the changes that occurred after the fermentation and maturation of Smen. The Smen is produced after the churning of fermented camel milk. Furthermore, the fresh cream is separated directly by centrifugation of raw camel milk. Butter yield and fat recovery efficiency show a decrease after Smen ripening. Physicochemical analyzes of Smen showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher acid value (8.5 mg KOH/g) and ash (1.16 %); lower total solids (60.8 %) and fat (50.5 %) than fresh cream (2.08 mg KOH/g, 0.38 %, 68.2 %, 63.6 % respectively). The milk fermentation and the manufacturing process of Smen interfere with the microbiological properties by increasing lactic bacteria flora and yeast and absence of fecal flora and pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Sulfite-reducing clostridia. The fermentation process modifies the nutritional and hygienic properties of milk fat, in which Smen became higher health benefits than fresh cream by the growth of lactic bacteria flora and the synthesis of bioactive molecules.


Copyright © 2022
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Physicochemical and microbiological study of fresh cream and fermented butter (Smen) made from camel milk

Adugna M, Seifu E, Kebeded A, Doluschitz R. 2013. Quality and safety of camel milk along the value chain in Eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Food Studies 2(2), 150-157. https://doi.org/10.7455/ijfs/2.2.2013.a2

Atanasovaa J, Monchevab P, Ivanovab I. 2014. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria grown in goat milk. Biotechnology& Biotechnological Equipment 28(6), 1073-1078. https://doi.org/10.1080/13102818.2014.971487

Berhe T, Seifu E, Kurtu MY. 2013. Physicochemical properties of butter made from camel milk. International Dairy Journal 31(2), 51–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2013.02.008

Bourrie BCT, Willing BP, Cotter PD. 2016. The microbiota and health promoting characteristics of the fermented beverage Kefir. Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 7, Article 647. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00647

Elhosseny M, Gwida M, Elsherbini M, Abu Samra R, Al Ashmawy M. 2018. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of camel milk from Egypt. Journal of Dairy, Veterinary & Animal Research 7(3), 92-97. https://doi.org/10.15406/jdvar.2014.07.00197

Ewe JA, Loo SY. 2016. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter. Food Chemistry 201, 29-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.049

Farah Z. 1996. Camel milk: Properties and products. St. Gallen, Switzerland: Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT). 91 pages.

Galeboe O, Seifu E, Sekwati-Monang B. 2018. Production of camel milk yoghurt: physicochemical and microbiological quality and consumer acceptability. International Journal of Food Studies 7, 51-63. https://doi.org/10.7455/ijfs/7.2.2018.a5

Granier A, Goulet O, Hoarau C. 2013. Fermentation products: Immunological effects on human and animal models. Pediatric Research 74, 238-244. https://doi.org/10.1038/pr.2013.76

Heita LN, Cheikhyoussef A. 2014. Dominant lactic acid bacteria and their antimicrobial profile from three fermented milk products from northern Namibia. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines 2, 8-13. https://doi.org/10.4236/jbm.2014.29002

Idoui T, Benhamada N, Leghouchi E. 2010. Microbial quality, physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of a traditional butter produced from cows’ milk in East Algeria. GRASAS Y ACEITES 61(3), 232-236, https://doi.org/10.3989/gya.110209

Iradukunda C, Wan Aida WM, Tadlaoui Ouafi A, Barkouch Y, Boussaid A. 2018. Aroma profile of a traditionally fermented butter (smen). Journal of Dairy Research 85, 114-120. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029917000796

Journal Officiel de la République Algérienne (JORA). 2017. Arrêté du Aouel Rabie El Aouel 1439 correspondant au 20 novembre 2017 rendant obligatoire la méthode de préparation des échantillons, de la suspension mère et des dilutions décimales en vue de l’examen microbiologique des laits et des produits laitiers, N° 74, 9 pages.

Kacem M, Karam NE. 2006. Physicochemical and microbiological study of “Shmen”, a traditional butter made from camel milk in the Sahara (Algeria): isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. Grasas Y Aceites 57(2), 198-204.

Marchal N, Bourdon JL, Richard CL. 1987. Les milieux de culture ; pour l’isolement et l’identification biochimique des bactéries. 3ème Ed., Doin, CRDP d’Aquitaine, Paris. 482 pages.

Marshall MR. 2010. Ash Analysis. In Suzanne Nielsen S, Ed. food analysis Fourth Edition. Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London. 105-116. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1478-1

Mosbah S, Boudjenah-Haroun S, Dahia M, Boual Z. 2017. Evaluation of microflora variation of camel milk during fermentation. Ponte, International Journal of Sciences and Research 73(12), 76-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.21506/j.ponte.2017.12.6

Mosbah S, Harrat M, Mekkaoui S, Boual Z, Yousfi Y, Boudjenah-Haroun S. 2021. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of whey proteins extracted from fermented camel milk. International Journal of Biosciences 19(4), 84-94. http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/19.4.84-94

NF EN ISO. 8968-1, May 2014. Milk and milk products – Determination of nitrogen content – Part 1: Kjeldahl principle and crude protein calculation.

NFT 60 204. 1985. Détermination de l’indice d’acide et de l’acidité (méthodes titrimétriques). Association Française de Normalisation. AFNOR, Paris, France.

Norme AFNOR NF V 04-287. 2002 « Fromages- Détermination de la teneur en matière grasse – Méthode acido-butyrométrique ».

Omer RH, Eltinay AH. 2009. Changes in chemical composition of camel’s raw milk during storage. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8(5), 607-610. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2009.607.610

Owusu-Kwarteng J, Akabanda F, Nielsen DS, Tano-Debrah K, Glover RLK, Jespersen L. 2012. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated during traditional fura processing in Ghana. Food microbiology 32(1), 72-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fm.2012.04.010

Parmar NB, Mehta BM, Aparnathi KD. 2018. Composition of ghee prepared from camel, cow and buffalo milk. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 25(3), 321-326. https://doi.org/10.5958/2277-8934.2018.00046.2

Robert L, Bradley Jr. 2010. Moisture and Total Solids Analysis. In Suzanne Nielsen S, Ed. food analysis Fourth Edition. Springer New York Dordrecht Heidelberg London p 85-104. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1478-1

Samet-Bali O, Ayadi MA, Attia H. 2009. Traditional Tunisian butter: Physicochemical and microbial characteristics and storage stability of the oil fraction. Food Science and Technology 42, 899-905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2008.11.007

Seifu E. 2007. Handling, preservation and utilization of camel milk and camel milk products in Shinile and Jijiga Zones, eastern Ethiopia. Liverstock Research for Rural Development, 19(6), https://lrrd.cipav.org.co/lrrd19/6/seif19086.htm

Widyastuti Y, Rohmatussolihat, Febrisiantosa A. 2014. The role of lactic acid bacteria in milk fermentation. Food and Nutrition Sciences (5), 435-442. https://doi.org/10.4236/fns.2014.54051

Yamazi AK, Moreira TS, Cavicchioli VQ, Burin RCK, Nero LA. 2013. Long cold storage influences the microbiological quality of raw goat milk. Small Ruminant Research 113, 205-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2013.02.004