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Physicochemical and microbiological study of fresh cream and fermented butter (Smen) made from camel milk

Saïd Mosbah, Ghania Annou, M’hamed Bouricha, Safia Mekkaoui, Boudjenah-Haroun Saliha

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Int. J. Biosci.20(3), 52-59, March 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/20.3.52-59


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Smen is the most used local product by Algerian nomadic peoples, which is produced by the spontaneous fermentation of camel milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh cream separated from camel milk and the changes that occurred after the fermentation and maturation of Smen. The Smen is produced after the churning of fermented camel milk. Furthermore, the fresh cream is separated directly by centrifugation of raw camel milk. Butter yield and fat recovery efficiency show a decrease after Smen ripening. Physicochemical analyzes of Smen showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher acid value (8.5 mg KOH/g) and ash (1.16 %); lower total solids (60.8 %) and fat (50.5 %) than fresh cream (2.08 mg KOH/g, 0.38 %, 68.2 %, 63.6 % respectively). The milk fermentation and the manufacturing process of Smen interfere with the microbiological properties by increasing lactic bacteria flora and yeast and absence of fecal flora and pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Sulfite-reducing clostridia. The fermentation process modifies the nutritional and hygienic properties of milk fat, in which Smen became higher health benefits than fresh cream by the growth of lactic bacteria flora and the synthesis of bioactive molecules.


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