Int. J. Biosci.18( 2), 194-201, February 2021
During spontaneous fermentation of cereals; yeasts ferment carbohydrates to produce alcohol and they also provide vitamins, amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides needed by lactic acid bacteria as well as produce flavour compounds. Nevertheless, spontaneous fermentation is prone to yeast contamination from the surroundings which pose a health risk of opportunistic yeast infection. A study was carried out involving culturing, isolation and identification of yeast contaminants present in the local cereal-based beverages namely Kindi, Kimpumu, Togwa and Mbege purposively sampled and collected from Morogoro, Mbeya and Kilimanjaro regions in Tanzania between February and May 2019. The results disclosed 24% of the yeasts actively involved in the fermentation were opportunistic and identified as Candida zeylanoides, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus gattii, Rhodotorula minuta, Candida ciferrii, and Candida dubliniensis. Such contamination levels from the studied samples sets a base for further research to establish mechanisms of reducing exposure of cereal-based beverage consumers to pathogenic effects of the opportunistic yeasts which may include infections by Candida spp.
Achi OK, Asamudo NU. 2019. Cereal-Based Fermented Foods of Africa as Functional Foods. In: J.-M. Mérillon, K.G.R. (Ed.), Bioactive Molecules in Food, Reference Series in Phytochemistry. Springer, Cham, 1527–1558. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-78030-6_31
Aka S, Konan G, Fokou G, Dje Koffi M, Bonfoh B. 2014. Review on African traditional cereal beverages. American Journal of Research Communication 2, 103–153.
Chen SCA, Meyer W, Sorrell TC. 2014. Cryptococcus gattii infections. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 27, 980–1024. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00126-13
Enujiugha VN, Badejo AA. 2017. Probiotic potentials of cereal-based beverages. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 57, 790–804. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2014.930018
Franz CMAP, Huch M, Mathara JM, Abriouel H, Benomar N, Reid G, Galvez A, Holzapfel WH. 2014. African fermented foods and probiotics. International Journal of Food Microbiology 190, 84–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.08.033
Hierro N, González Á, Mas A, Guillamón JM. 2004. New PCR-based methods for yeast identification. Journal of Applied Microbiology 97, 792–801. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02369.x
James MJ, Martin JL, David AG. 2005. Modern Food Microbiology 7th Ed – Springer.
Johansen PG, Owusu-Kwarteng J, Parkouda C, Padonou SW, Jespersen L. 2019. Occurrence and Importance of Yeasts in Indigenous Fermented Food and Beverages Produced in Sub-Saharan Africa. Frontiers in Microbiology 10, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01789
Khosravi AR, Shokri H, Nikaein D, Erfanmanesh A, Fatahinia M, Hlan JA. 2013. Evaluation of the pathogenicity of candida zeylanoides in BALB/c mice. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 37, 408–413. https://doi.org/10.3906/vet-1105-40
Kurtzman CP, Fell JW, Boekhout T, Robert V. 2011. Methods for isolation, phenotypic characterization and maintenance of yeasts, The Yeasts. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-52149-1.00007-0
Lara-Hidalgo CE, Hernández-Sánchez H, Hernández-Rodríguez C, Dorantes-Álvarez L. 2017. Yeasts in Fermented Foods and their Probiotic Potential. Austin Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 4, 01–08.
Miceli MH, Díaz JA, Lee SA. 2011. Emerging opportunistic yeast infections. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11, 142–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70218-8
Mugula JK, Nnko SAM, Narvhus JA, Sørhaug T. 2003. Microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 80, 187–199. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00141-1
Mukisa IM, Byaruhanga YB, Muyanja CMBK, Langsrud T, Narvhus JA. 2017. Production of organic flavor compounds by dominant lactic acid bacteria and yeasts from Obushera, a traditional sorghum malt fermented beverage. Food Science and Nutrition 5, 702–712. https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.450
Ogunremi OR, Sanni AI, Agrawal R. 2015. Probiotic potentials of yeasts isolated from some cereal-based Nigerian traditional fermented food products. Journal of Applied Microbiology 119, 797–808. https://doi.org/10.1111/jam.12875
Pedersen LL, Owusu-Kwarteng J, Thorsen L, Jespersen L. 2012. Biodiversity and probiotic potential of yeasts isolated from Fura, a West African spontaneously fermented cereal. International Journal of Food Microbiology 159, 144–151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.08.016
Pereira GH, Müller PR, Szeszs MW, Levin AS, Melhem MSC. 2010. Five-year evaluation of bloodstream yeast infections in a tertiary hospital: The predominance of non-C. albicans Candida species. Medical Mycology 48, 839–842. https://doi.org/10.3109/13693780903580121
Polvi EJ, Li, X, O’Meara TR, Leach MD, Cowen LE. 2015. Opportunistic yeast pathogens: Reservoirs, virulence mechanisms, and therapeutic strategies. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 72, 2261–2287. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00018-015-1860-z
Raja HA, Miller AN, Pearce CJ, Oberlies NH. 2017. Fungal Identification Using Molecular Tools: A Primer for the Natural Products Research Community. Journal of Natural Products 80, 756–770. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b01085
Satyanarayana T, Kunze G. 2009. Yeast biotechnology: Diversity and applications. Yeast Biotechnology: Diversity and Applications 215–236. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-8292-4
Schoch CL, Seifert KA, Huhndorf S, Robert V, Spouge JL, Levesque CA, Chen W, Fungal Barcoding Consortium, Fungal Barcoding Consortium Author List. 2012. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109, 6241–6. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1117018109
Silva S, Negri M, Henriques M, Oliveira R, Williams DW, Azeredo J. 2012. Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: Biology, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 36, 288–305. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2011.00278.x
Todorov SD, Holzapfel WH. 2014. Traditional cereal fermented foods as sources of functional microorganisms. Advances in Fermented Foods and Beverages: Improving Quality, Technologies and Health Benefits. Elsevier Ltd, 123–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-015-6.00006-2
Wirth F, Goldani LZ. 2012. Epidemiology of rhodotorula: An emerging pathogen. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/465717