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Research Paper | December 6, 2022

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Utilization patterns and the effect of processing on nutritional, functional, phytochemical and anti-oxidant properties of Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds in Tanzania

Asteria Siringo, Neema Kassim, Edna Makule

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Int. J. Biosci.21(6), 255-266, December 2022

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/21.6.255-266

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Abstract

Jackfruit seeds are rich in nutrient such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and polyphenols. Yet, they are hugely underutilized in the country at present. The study aimed to establish the utilization patterns and effects of processing (boiling, soaking and roasting) on nutritional, phytochemical and ant- properties of Jackfruits seeds. A total of 384 jackfruit farmers were interviewed across the surveyed districts by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Following processing, all seeds were dried, milled and analyzed by using standard methods. The study revealed that, majority (70%) of farmers use fresh seeds, with the sole reason ofrefreshment as a nut (91%). All farmers were not aware whether seeds can be processed into flour. Also, roasting (38%) and boiling (32%) of seeds were preferred traditionally as processing methods. After seed processing, moisture values ranged from 5.75 to 8.86% with soaked seeds having the lowest values. Fat content ranged from 0.65 to 1.63% with higher loss in roasted and all boiled samples. Processed seeds were rich in fibers (17.56%-24.35%), ash (3.43%-4.32%) and proteins (11.40%-12.95%). Carbohydrate content ranged from 43.83 to 70.22% with soaked seeds being the best. All processed seeds were rich in minerals, mostly K, P, Ca, Na and Zn the least. Flavonoids, phenolics and antioxidant activities were significantly reduced in all boiled samples. There was a 50% reduction of tannins in boiled (for 30 and 45 minutes) and roasted seeds. Also, trypsin inhibitors were significantly reduced in boiled seeds depending on the boiling time.. The flour sample from the processed seeds had good solubility, swelling, bulky density and oil absorption capacities. With suitable functional properties, optimal nutrients and reduced anti-nutrients levels, the processed seed flour by boiling for 45 minutes could be considered for value addition in food industry.

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Utilization patterns and the effect of processing on nutritional, functional, phytochemical and anti-oxidant properties of Jackfruits (Artocarpus heterophyllus) seeds in Tanzania

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